Top Skills Required by Electronics Engineers


Electronics & Communication engineering is actually one of the most (if not the most) creative branches of engineering. The basic job of an electronics engineer can vary from designing various software components, like apps, electronic appliances and products, develop effective testing procedures for electronic systems , to examine electronic equipment and ascertain whether they are up to safety standards or not.

According to global consulting firm Ernst & Young, consumer electronics industry in India will grow by 13.4% by 2020 and reach will touch 20.6 billion . The ESDM ( Electronics System, Design & Manufacturing) sector in India is salted to reach $ 228 billion at 2020 according to EY.


As illustrated above the electronics sector is slated to be one of the fastest growing sectors of India – the jobs for electronics engineer are guaranteed to increase at a high rate. But just like any other professional course, only those with relevant skills will have access to quality well paying jobs. In this essay we will highlight a few of the key skills, electronics engineers are expected to have.


  • Basic Knowledge & Clear Concepts of circuit designing and digital logic block building


  • Working Knowledge of Development Board and semiconductor manufacturing process


  • Master the basics of troubleshooting. Troubleshooting – identifying and analyzing problems that has developed or can develop in a software or  hardware is a basic engineering skill which engineers like mechanical engineers, CS engineers, electrical engineers and electronics engineers must master. Also, debugging skills are a must.


  • Have knowledge on how to operate microprocessor and controller.


  • Must have a good grasp on programming languages like C language, Perl, Python, IC languages like Verilog and VHDL etc


  • Get educated on latest programming languages used by the telecom industry such as Matlab and Octave


  • Choose to specialize either in Analog or Digital. Then learn the nitty gritties of chosen specialization.


  • Soft Skills : Try as much as you can but just can’t deny the importance of soft skills. Mastering relevant technical skills is a must for all engineers, but soft skills – effective communication skills – especially the skill of explaining technical details to non technical people, organization and management skills, time management skills, negotiation skills, ability to team work effectively are skills which engineers must have – since most of them get placed in the corporate sector, where these skills are held in high value.

All said and done, successful engineers are those who choose to specialize in a particular skill and dedicate their lives to it. According to many recruiters the main problem of engineering graduates in India is that they do not specialize and get stick in generalist mode. As a professional and technical degree, engineering is an entirely skill based industry. The more specialized skills you can acquire, the more updated you keep yourself regarding the latest skill/technologies used by your sector, the more desirable you will be to the recruiters.

Benefits of having a CISCO Certification


The IT ( Information Technology) is one of the most competitive sector in our country. According to IBEF ( Indian Brand Equity Foundation) the IT sector employs about 10 million people every year.

So as you can see, the competition is fierce indeed- additionally engineering, specifically CS ( Computer Science ) is one of the most widely pursued courses in India- so if you have dreams of having a prosperous career in the IT sector, you have to do all you can in order to stand out from the crowd.


One of the ways you can acquire an edge over your peers is to acquire relevant job experience, and/or acquiring certifications. Having IT certifications like CISCO, Redhat, Oracle in your kitty is always desirable, as these certifications are a testament of your potential, and dedication. Today we will discuss the perks of having a CISCO certification.


The CISCO certification or the CCNA ( Cisco Certified Network Associate ) is a beginner level certification that is widely respected in the IT industry. If you are serious having a stable, well paying job in the networking domain then a CISCO certification can open multiple doors for you. We will share just a few perks of having a CISCO certification


Increased Employment Opportunities : Most employers are super keen on hiring CISCO certified professionals – not just because the certificate is very prestigious – employers get huge discounts on CISCO products if they hire CISCO professionals. Any company which uses CISCO devices will be eager to hire you.


Access to High Paying Jobs : Acquiring a CISCO certification can be a gateway to higher paying jobs. This is because having this certification basically means that you have proven knowledge about the fundamentals of networking. like installing, configuring and operating WAN, LAN, IP usage etc. You will be able to differentiate yourself among your peers


Promotion : A CISCO certification, will indeed pave the way for you to climb the IT ladder. It will fast track your career like never before. This is because CCNA certification is a difficult one and is not one which can be cracked by many. Having such a valued certification will set you a class apart from your peers.


So there you go – the benefits of having a CCAP certification are undeniable. If you are keen on having this lucrative certification in your kitty, then you must sign up, BSc or an MSc course in Hardware & Networking, provided by Brainware Engineering college. Aside from exposing you to an industry driven course tailor made for IT enthusiasts this will also include international certifications like CCNA.


9 Top Skills Which Electrical Engineers Must Master :


Here are 9 top skills which all electrical engineers must have if they want to make it as a successful ECE.

Ability to read Electrical Measurements accurately : This is one of the basic skills an ECE engineers must have a good grasp on


Ability to Handle Electrical Tools/Machines Efficiently : You must be comfortable reading, testing, machines, how to operate drives like SCADA etc.


Circuit Designing Skills : Synthesizing, debugging electrical circuits is a must have skill for ECE engineers. Also you should have a good knowledge of some software packages like Orcad, Eagle etc.
Become Programme Language Pro : In order to become an efficient ECE, you need to master a multitude of programming languages such as ARM, AVR, PIC, Java etc


Have a strong basics on maintenance of electric power plants and how to generate electricity.


Critical Thinking Skills : What most engineers often neglect to remember, engineers have to think up creative solutions to technological problems that are faced by laymen. So critical, problem solving approach is a prized trait all engineers whether mechanical, electrical or otherwise, must develope.


Up todate Knowledge : Engineering, no matter its branch, is heavily technology based. So constant learning and getting uptodate with latest technological developments is a skill which all engineers must have. If you do not update yourself regularly and educate yourself on technology daily then you will lag behind competitors – energetic, dynamic engineers who are always updating themselves.


Soft Skills : This is one area which engineers often neglect. Most engineers become so complacent thinking that mastering technical skills will be enough for them. Unfortunately mastering good communication skills is not optional anymore today as you have to demonstrate or explain products and apps in a lucid way to non technical clients.


Budgeting Skills : The best technology ( at least from the point of view of companies) is one that’s cost effective. So some basic budgeting skills, financial analysis skills is a must have for engineers.


Troubleshooting Skills : An ECE is always expected to diagnose and manage system so that they operate smoothly.


Smart Small Cell with Hybrid Beamforming for 5G


For several years in the past, fifth generation (5G) wireless communication has been actively discussed, both in the academia and the industry as a means of providing various mobile convergence services. Many 5G project groups have been established to propose service scenarios and target performance metrics. In the coming years, the amount of mobile data traffic is expected to increase tremendously .


Given this fact, one important application that most 5G project groups are likely to support is high data rate communications.  A key enabling technology to support a high data rate service scenario appears to be a small cell network. When a network is in the interference-limited regime, it is known theoretically that spectral efficiency per area increases linearly with the number of small cells.


From a spatial domain viewpoint, however, huge differences can be found in the wireless channel characteristics of small cell networks (e.g., outdoor-to-indoor or indoor-to-indoor) and those of conventional macro cell networks. Various channel environments may occur in a small cell network, since the space constraint for cell deployment can be greatly mitigated, thanks to the reduced deployment of time and cost.


in 5G cellular networks, a promising technology is one that exploits three-dimensional (3D) beam control. In practical situations, BSs and users are distributed in 3D space, such as in the urban cell scenarios . As the elevation angle of the ray propagation becomes influential, the 3D beamforming can increase both the cell average output and the 5-percentile user throughput.  A critical issue in addition to the 3D beamforming design is the performance evaluation method that reflects the 3D space accordingly. When it comes to 3D beam-forming gain, more elaborate simulation results may be produced by generating BSs and also produce users in both horizontal and vertical domains, rather than considering only a two- dimensional (2D) distribution.



In general, we do not consult any physician for health check up until some symptoms of ailment are observed. Similarly for RCC structures health assessments are performed when some abnormalities are observed in the structure or when quality control tests give poor results thereby failing to satisfy acceptance criteria.

The life of a concrete structure varies between 50-100 years. So a huge number of RCC structures are found to be completing their life span and subjected to different types of distresses. Complete demolition and rebuilding are difficult decisions to take. To improve performance and functional appearance different retrofitting and rehabilitation measures are taken.

Any such repair work is to be proceeded by health assessment of structure by which problem is diagnosed. After proper investigation the remedial measures can be adopted. In order to assess the health of any structure, basic protocol must be followed. As a thumb rule, we should follow the investigation steps while going for forensic study of concrete structure.


The prime objectives and procedural steps of retrofitting work are:

  • Finding the geography of the area where the structure is located
  • Knowing the history of the structure
  • Going thoroughly through the technical report
  • Performing visual inspection
  • Selecting non-destructive and semi-destructive tests that are needed to be performed on strength
  • Identification of the location of the spots for test
  • Determining causes of defects, analysis of the test results with proper engineering knowledge
  • Locating the area of weakness and prescribing the remedial measures to rehabilitate the structure
  • Making a list of repair and rectification works and reasoning to maintain the structure in future from similar problems/distresses


Proper maintenance extends the life of any old or existing structure. It can be classified as routine and special maintenance. The routine maintenance is performed at every one and two year’s interval to maintain aesthetic and functional requirement of the existing building. Special maintenance is required to restore the structural integrity whether any indication of abnormality is seen in the building.

Structure are made up of different construction materials such as brick, stones, concrete, steel, timber and combination of many others. In general, failures of these structures are not same and also the steps taken for rehabilitations will also not be the same. Merely knowing rehabilitation technique will be of no use to engineers. Prevention is better than cure. It is always desired to identify the reasons behind any failure and to eliminate them altogether, so that failure do not occur at any stage.

But it is practically impossible to eliminate all reasons behind the failure of the structure. Even if we have done good design, performed construction in the best possible way and time to time maintenance work is carried out, the structure cannot be declared as free from failure. The failures need to be analyzed, the nature and extent of damage should be assessed and then proper rehabilitation measures are to be undertaken. The repair and rehabilitation measures vary according to locations of damage. These include restoring structural integrity of major safety defects.

How To Create A Great Impression, On First Day Of Your Job



It’s day one of your job. You are a green graduate fresh out of college, this is your first job, your first exposure to the corporate world, your first ever paycheck…. it’s a landmark occasion in your life, that’s for sure. You feel understandably, extremely nervous. What if you fail to deliver? What if you fail to live up to all that you have claimed you were competent at in your resume? What if you do not get along with your colleagues? What if you stumble and have an awkward moment in front of your employer? In order to help you out through your first day at first job jitters, we are publishing a list of do’s and dont’s to help you make your way through the confusion and create a favourable impression on your first job.


Before you go through our list, remember one thing, in order to have a successful professional career, you have to unlearn all that you have learnt in your B Tech or MBA. Many graduates make a mistake assuming that all the theories that they have learnt in their college years will be applicable here. First thing you have to keep in mind that theories are a completely academic affair. Theories, conjectures, hypotheses, probabilities, these should stay where they are – in the university and the academia. The corporate world thrives on practical application of these theories. Due to several constraints such as time, budget, cultural and economic/financial trends many hypotheses might not be feasible in real world circumstances. This advice is more applicable to engineers who are often more wrapped up with exclusively the technical side of the business and cannot for a long time let go of the things they have learnt in college.


You have to remember that time, maximizing profits and minimizing cost and overheads are the most valuable objectives in the corporate world and an employee can make themselves invaluable by mastering the techniques to achieve these objectives.  So without any further ado, we will share the do’s and don’ts to follow on the first day of your first job.


Be Punctual : The easiest way for a fresh graduate to make a good impression on the employer is to be on time. Punctuality and deadlines are utterly important in the corporate world as time is precious for everybody. If deadlines are not followed then projects get delayed and business loses validity and clients. The first step of projecting yourself as reliable is showing up on time.


D For Dress Code : If you are not sure about the dress code- not all companies and firms have written rules for dress code, then do not hesitate to call up the HR and inquire about the appropriate dress. What you will wear to work, will often depend on the predominant company culture. If you are working on a creative job as a graphic designer/ copywriter for an advertising firm, then dress code will be a little more liberal. but if you are working in finance- investment, pvt equity  or accounting or as a business analyst, dress will be formal. In general avoid wearing a too flamboyant outfit at work. Wear colour coded clothes, that are prim, proper discreet and clean. Do not wear over the top make up and check if your shoes, socks, tie and nails are squeaky clean!


Don’t Forget To Bring Important Documents : You will need authentic personal documents as your office identity card, parking pass, paycheck items etc. There will be inevitably a ton of paperwork the first day. Don’t delay the process by neglecting to bring important documents like passport, voter’s id card, bank account information etc.


Notepad Is A Must : Since you are a newbie, do attempt to take notes. Carry your notebook and pen everywhere you go, you will be learning new things, note down when your employer discusses the company history, vision and mission with you, takes notes when the HR introduces you to the company culture. You will be seen as organized and diligent and these notes will act as valuable reference for later.


Accept Invitation to Lunch or Happy Hour : Don’t be the resident lone wolf. Socialize. Accept when colleagues offer happy hour or luncheon invitation. It will be an invaluable opportunity to get to know your colleagues, to discover like minded people to form a close knit group. Creating a group in office is important as they will keep you updated on the undercurrents of office politics and keep you informed about what to do and what not to do. There are certain unspoken rules in every office and only an experienced colleague on friendly terms with you can inform you about them.


Don’t Overshare : In a bid for friendship, don’t share unnecessary details about yourself. Remember that this is a professional setting. That person with whom you get along with like a house on fire, is not your childhood buddy he or she is your colleague. Your romantic problems, if you are having domestic problems etc your weird habits your co workers don’t need to know them. By oversharing you will be seen as laughing stock.

Top Qualities Industries Seek In Engineering Graduates

In this essay we shall attempt to discuss one all important question: What do industries and employers expect from young engineering graduates? This is one issue which troubles many a young engineer. Closely related to this question, is the issue of employment of these young engineers. This question is and will always remain very relevant to engineers as engineering and industry are very closely related. The industry thrives on innovation and invention which is basically the task of engineers. Engineers by applying the laws, theories and probabilities formed by the scientists make life for the non engineering laymen much more smoother and much convenient. The industry functions on efficient practical application of scientific theories and laws- which is primarily the duty of the engineer. Therefore the industry whether hardware, software , automotive etc has certain expectations from engineers. We will delineate these expectation one by one.


  • Polished Communication Skills : Unsurprisingly this is the number one requirement of the industry. Many engineers have adequate technical skills but their oral/communication skills are rusty at best, non existent at worst. They have poor English speaking skills, and struggle to speak and write English fluently. This often becomes a professional hindrance. This is because in most cases engineers does not just have to develop new technology, new apps but also demonstrate their utility to a wider audience – namely the clients.
  • Goes Beyond Book Smarts : Many employers complain that the engineering graduates are reluctant to step outside their textbook knowledge. Remember the basic duty of an engineer is to apply the laws of science in the most useful/beneficial way. Engineers are encouraged to think out of the box, as they are expected to invent and innovate. In a way engineers are much like artists and other creative people. They are expected to come up with creative/innovative solutions to different problems, visualize different possibilities to a situation and make them come alive. If you are unable to look beyond the book, then you will struggle to make your engineering career successful. This is because books are full of abstract theories and laws which cannot always be applied in real life business situations. When you are working in the corporate you need to keep track of a lot of other things like keeping projects within budget, making cost effective technologies etc.


  • Leadership Abilities : Another thing which industries expect from young engineering graduates is leadership abilities or assertiveness. Most engineers who are used to do projects do it under close guidance of professors and project supervisors. In the professional world, you need to develop managerial abilities. The corporate world do not just demand an able technician but also people who can manage and lead projects, innovate and help others innovate as well.
  • Get Up To Date : This particularly applies to those engineers who are employed in the software industry or IT industry. As mentioned before, the main job of the engineer is to innovate. So if you do not keep yourself updated with the latest trends/invention of the industry then someone else might well create the perfect user friendly technology, or that easy to understand programming language. You have to be aware, vigilant and uptodate with all the latest technological trends,


  • An MBA : This is directly related to the third point. As said before he industry needs employees who are not just technically adept, but has managerial aptitude. This is a reason why most of the engineers vie for an MBA  degree after gaining some work experience. Engineering trains you to be a tech wizard, how to invent, but an MBA is expected to help you learn about how to manage people, how to save unnecessary costs for the company by making cost effective business decisions, how to analyze plausible growth trends etc. So an MBA degree is considered an icing on engineering cake, by all industries.


  • Fluent in Foreign Languages : This is related to our first point. Communication. If you are fluent in more than one language, you will be considered an indispensable employee, as then you will be a major help demonstrating products and services to foreign clients. A lot many companies deal with overseas clientele and value engineers who are fluent in more than one foreign language.

How To Write A Killer Cover Letter :



If your CV is the tangible form of your professional identity, then a cover letter is the equivalent of an introduction. As we all know first impression count for a lot in the professional world, An impressive, to the point and crisply written cover letter would use as a brief introduction you, your skills, why you want to join a specific company or firm, and how you can be useful. A cover letter acts as the perfect supplement to your CV or resume. Many job applicants underestimate or ignore the importance of cover letter, they seem to think that the resume will suffice. But an impressive and well written cover letter can do a lot to increase your chances of bagging that job. So without any further ado, we will share some tips on how to write an arresting cover letter.


Most people have expressed a common problem while sitting down to write a cover letter, they struggle to begin. Most of us experience the veritable writer’s block, and ponder over the best way to begin the cover letter. The answer is pretty simple. Ask yourself if you have the skills that is demanded by this particular designation you are applying to. Start your cover letter with a respectful sir or madam, addressing the person (HR manager, recruiter General Secretary etc) to whom you are sending your resumes to. Then begin that having A experience and B skills you would like to apply for the advertised position.


Don’t be shy about highlighting your skills. Especially if they are relevant to the position you have in mind. For example if it’s a marketing job you have applied for, then do not hesitate to include the awards you fetched ( ex salesman of the year), the leads you converted etc. If it is a market research job you are applying for, then dont forget to bring attention to your research, surveying and analytical skills, if you have had experience in interpreting statistics, winning case study competition, mention it! Also as practical or hands on experience counts for a lot in the corporate sector, always highlight if you have research experience or relevant papers published.


Now that you have mentioned all the skills that is particular to the position you are vying for, do not forget to mention some basic generic soft skills like teamwork skills, good communication ( written and oral) , ability to multitask, to work within deadlines etc. These are evergreen skills which are in demand in every sort of industry, whether manufacturing, technology or consumer goods.


Don’t : Put flamboyant and dramatic words like ‘’unique’’ ‘’perfect’’ to describe the company. Even if you do have a high regard for this firm, dont gush about how it is your dream to work for this company. You will seem as immature and desperate. Enthusiasm is a welcome attribute from potential employees not desperation.


Don’t : Put your contact at the bottom of the page, it should be near the top of the cover letter.


Don’t : Commit grammatical and punctuation errors. These put off the recruiters. Make your cover letter as easy to read and comprehend as possible.





Problems Faced By Indian Engineering Students Today :



One of the major problems millions of engineering graduates face in India today, ………is that there are way too many engineering graduates in India. Chronic unemployment has become an embarrassing issue, plaguing the engineering sector. One of the main reason for this persistent problem of unemployment among the young engineers is that there are way too many engineers in India.

The basic rule of economics demand versus supply applies here, the supply of engineering graduates, far exceed the demand (number of engineering jobs). So thousands of engineering graduates face an uncertain future by the time they graduate. Many engineers due to the lack of jobs often engage in professions which have very little to do with engineering like peon work, bank PO ( probationary officer), school teacher, BPO etc. This article addresses the ever growing problem of chronic engineering unemployment and will also share some tips on how to ameliorate this issue to some extent.

Lack of Practical Experience : This is in fact the crux of the problem. Every year a huge number of students graduate are just pen and paper engineers, – lots of theoretical knowledge with zero practical experience. Apart from the Tier 1 engineering colleges, most of the Tier 2 and 3 engineering are heavy on academics but give very little significance to practical learning or hands on training. There are little to no internships , industry visits etc. Students have almost zero industry experience, and their knowledge is limited to the books they have studied. There are too many CS engineers for example who don’t know how to programme and code efficiently.

Solution : The engineering colleges need to make the syllabus more profession or job oriented. With rigorous academics regular industry interfaces, and at least 3 internships should be introduced.

Outdated Syllabus : Unfortunately majority of the second and third tier engineering colleges follow an out of date syllabus. The students are not well versed in latest softwares, technologies prevalent in the industries. Obviously most of the IT firms are reluctant to hire such engineers who lack knowledge of in demand technologies. The companies consider these graduates a liability as lot of time and money have to spent in training them. According to reports most of the engineering graduates are unemployable. Many CS/IT students are virtually incapable of ensuring security in C code, and lack basic programming skills.

Solution : Update syllabus ASAP. Make the syllabus not exam oriented but industry oriented. Include advanced programming languages like Java, C, C++, Python, Ruby on Rails, etc

Curse of Rote Learning : The Indian engineering education system is exam oriented. Most of the 2nd and 3rd tier colleges discourages innovation and research, The students are made to quickly mug up thick tomes/books without understanding basic engineering concepts. Majority of the students study solely to get marks/pass exam and lack in depth understanding of basics of engineering.

Solution : Encourage more research and innovation in engineering institutes

Disinterested Students : Engineering after medical studies are considered by Indian parents as lucrative. Engineering courses are thought to be as ticket to higher pay packages in corporate world. Driven by this mistaken thought many middle class parents in India induce/force their . children to study engineering. Students who are not at all interested in the subject, take it up to pacify parents or due to peer pressure. As they are studying a subject they have little to no interest in, they yield average to below average results.

Solution : Education should be interest and aptitude oriented and not job oriented.



Waste-to-energy combustion

The history of combustion of solid wastes in the United States clearly demonstrates the controversial nature of this method of waste disposal. In 1960, a little over 30 percent of Municipal solid waste discards was burned in incinerators solely as a volume reduction practice. That percentage dropped rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s, reaching a low of less than 10 percent in 1980.


With increased emphasis on avoiding landfilling and with better incinerators that were designed to control emissions while generating useful steam or electricity, combustion of municipal solid waste has reached about 15 percent of municipal solid waste generation. A number of developed countries around the world rely heavily on incineration than does the United States, especially if they have high population densities. Japan , for instance , burn almost two thirds of its waste , while the incineration rate in Western Europe is roughly 30 to 40 percent.


     In the early 1990s , the United States had 190 municipal solid waste combustion facilities in operation that burned about 30 million tons of waste per year. By 2000, that number had dropped to 102 , and by 2015, it was down to 88. Those 88 facilities, however, were bigger and cleaner and they burnt more waste than those in operation in the early 1990s. Most of these are located in the Northeast and South, while the west has only half a dozen.


Incineration of  municipal solid waste as a method of disposal has a number of favourable attributes, including volume reduction, immediate disposal without waiting for slow biological processes to do the job, much less land area requirements, destruction of hazardous materials , and the possibility of recovering useful energy. There are also tradeoffs, for example, it is reasonable to question whether burning paper for its energy value, or recycling it to reduce the environmental impacts of virgin pulping is the best way to utilize the material.


On the negative side of combustion, poorly operated incinerators release toxic substances such as dioxins into the air. The ash recovered may be classified as hazardous material that requires special technological handling. Unfortunately, the public is generally reluctant to accept new technological innovations, especially if a facility is being proposed in their own area. There is also a concern for whether incineration is compatible with recycling. Once an incinerator has been built, a consistent pile of refuse must be maintained to pay it off.


There can be reluctance to expand a recycling program if it may reduce the fuel supply, and hence cash flow for the incineration system. In the general hierarchy of solid waste management, recycling is considered a better than incineration. So there are advocates who feel it is important to write into an incineration contract, the freedom to reduce the amount of garbage are provided any time, without penalty or other economic risk, when that reduction is due to an expansion in recycling.