How To Create A Great Impression, On First Day Of Your Job

 

 

It’s day one of your job. You are a green graduate fresh out of college, this is your first job, your first exposure to the corporate world, your first ever paycheck…. it’s a landmark occasion in your life, that’s for sure. You feel understandably, extremely nervous. What if you fail to deliver? What if you fail to live up to all that you have claimed you were competent at in your resume? What if you do not get along with your colleagues? What if you stumble and have an awkward moment in front of your employer? In order to help you out through your first day at first job jitters, we are publishing a list of do’s and dont’s to help you make your way through the confusion and create a favourable impression on your first job.

 

Before you go through our list, remember one thing, in order to have a successful professional career, you have to unlearn all that you have learnt in your B Tech or MBA. Many graduates make a mistake assuming that all the theories that they have learnt in their college years will be applicable here. First thing you have to keep in mind that theories are a completely academic affair. Theories, conjectures, hypotheses, probabilities, these should stay where they are – in the university and the academia. The corporate world thrives on practical application of these theories. Due to several constraints such as time, budget, cultural and economic/financial trends many hypotheses might not be feasible in real world circumstances. This advice is more applicable to engineers who are often more wrapped up with exclusively the technical side of the business and cannot for a long time let go of the things they have learnt in college.

 

You have to remember that time, maximizing profits and minimizing cost and overheads are the most valuable objectives in the corporate world and an employee can make themselves invaluable by mastering the techniques to achieve these objectives.  So without any further ado, we will share the do’s and don’ts to follow on the first day of your first job.

 

Be Punctual : The easiest way for a fresh graduate to make a good impression on the employer is to be on time. Punctuality and deadlines are utterly important in the corporate world as time is precious for everybody. If deadlines are not followed then projects get delayed and business loses validity and clients. The first step of projecting yourself as reliable is showing up on time.

 

D For Dress Code : If you are not sure about the dress code- not all companies and firms have written rules for dress code, then do not hesitate to call up the HR and inquire about the appropriate dress. What you will wear to work, will often depend on the predominant company culture. If you are working on a creative job as a graphic designer/ copywriter for an advertising firm, then dress code will be a little more liberal. but if you are working in finance- investment, pvt equity  or accounting or as a business analyst, dress will be formal. In general avoid wearing a too flamboyant outfit at work. Wear colour coded clothes, that are prim, proper discreet and clean. Do not wear over the top make up and check if your shoes, socks, tie and nails are squeaky clean!

 

Don’t Forget To Bring Important Documents : You will need authentic personal documents as your office identity card, parking pass, paycheck items etc. There will be inevitably a ton of paperwork the first day. Don’t delay the process by neglecting to bring important documents like passport, voter’s id card, bank account information etc.

 

Notepad Is A Must : Since you are a newbie, do attempt to take notes. Carry your notebook and pen everywhere you go, you will be learning new things, note down when your employer discusses the company history, vision and mission with you, takes notes when the HR introduces you to the company culture. You will be seen as organized and diligent and these notes will act as valuable reference for later.

 

Accept Invitation to Lunch or Happy Hour : Don’t be the resident lone wolf. Socialize. Accept when colleagues offer happy hour or luncheon invitation. It will be an invaluable opportunity to get to know your colleagues, to discover like minded people to form a close knit group. Creating a group in office is important as they will keep you updated on the undercurrents of office politics and keep you informed about what to do and what not to do. There are certain unspoken rules in every office and only an experienced colleague on friendly terms with you can inform you about them.

 

Don’t Overshare : In a bid for friendship, don’t share unnecessary details about yourself. Remember that this is a professional setting. That person with whom you get along with like a house on fire, is not your childhood buddy he or she is your colleague. Your romantic problems, if you are having domestic problems etc your weird habits your co workers don’t need to know them. By oversharing you will be seen as laughing stock.

Top Qualities Industries Seek In Engineering Graduates

In this essay we shall attempt to discuss one all important question: What do industries and employers expect from young engineering graduates? This is one issue which troubles many a young engineer. Closely related to this question, is the issue of employment of these young engineers. This question is and will always remain very relevant to engineers as engineering and industry are very closely related. The industry thrives on innovation and invention which is basically the task of engineers. Engineers by applying the laws, theories and probabilities formed by the scientists make life for the non engineering laymen much more smoother and much convenient. The industry functions on efficient practical application of scientific theories and laws- which is primarily the duty of the engineer. Therefore the industry whether hardware, software , automotive etc has certain expectations from engineers. We will delineate these expectation one by one.

 

  • Polished Communication Skills : Unsurprisingly this is the number one requirement of the industry. Many engineers have adequate technical skills but their oral/communication skills are rusty at best, non existent at worst. They have poor English speaking skills, and struggle to speak and write English fluently. This often becomes a professional hindrance. This is because in most cases engineers does not just have to develop new technology, new apps but also demonstrate their utility to a wider audience – namely the clients.
  • Goes Beyond Book Smarts : Many employers complain that the engineering graduates are reluctant to step outside their textbook knowledge. Remember the basic duty of an engineer is to apply the laws of science in the most useful/beneficial way. Engineers are encouraged to think out of the box, as they are expected to invent and innovate. In a way engineers are much like artists and other creative people. They are expected to come up with creative/innovative solutions to different problems, visualize different possibilities to a situation and make them come alive. If you are unable to look beyond the book, then you will struggle to make your engineering career successful. This is because books are full of abstract theories and laws which cannot always be applied in real life business situations. When you are working in the corporate you need to keep track of a lot of other things like keeping projects within budget, making cost effective technologies etc.

 

  • Leadership Abilities : Another thing which industries expect from young engineering graduates is leadership abilities or assertiveness. Most engineers who are used to do projects do it under close guidance of professors and project supervisors. In the professional world, you need to develop managerial abilities. The corporate world do not just demand an able technician but also people who can manage and lead projects, innovate and help others innovate as well.
  • Get Up To Date : This particularly applies to those engineers who are employed in the software industry or IT industry. As mentioned before, the main job of the engineer is to innovate. So if you do not keep yourself updated with the latest trends/invention of the industry then someone else might well create the perfect user friendly technology, or that easy to understand programming language. You have to be aware, vigilant and uptodate with all the latest technological trends,

 

  • An MBA : This is directly related to the third point. As said before he industry needs employees who are not just technically adept, but has managerial aptitude. This is a reason why most of the engineers vie for an MBA  degree after gaining some work experience. Engineering trains you to be a tech wizard, how to invent, but an MBA is expected to help you learn about how to manage people, how to save unnecessary costs for the company by making cost effective business decisions, how to analyze plausible growth trends etc. So an MBA degree is considered an icing on engineering cake, by all industries.

 

  • Fluent in Foreign Languages : This is related to our first point. Communication. If you are fluent in more than one language, you will be considered an indispensable employee, as then you will be a major help demonstrating products and services to foreign clients. A lot many companies deal with overseas clientele and value engineers who are fluent in more than one foreign language.

How To Write A Killer Cover Letter :

 

 

If your CV is the tangible form of your professional identity, then a cover letter is the equivalent of an introduction. As we all know first impression count for a lot in the professional world, An impressive, to the point and crisply written cover letter would use as a brief introduction you, your skills, why you want to join a specific company or firm, and how you can be useful. A cover letter acts as the perfect supplement to your CV or resume. Many job applicants underestimate or ignore the importance of cover letter, they seem to think that the resume will suffice. But an impressive and well written cover letter can do a lot to increase your chances of bagging that job. So without any further ado, we will share some tips on how to write an arresting cover letter.

 

Most people have expressed a common problem while sitting down to write a cover letter, they struggle to begin. Most of us experience the veritable writer’s block, and ponder over the best way to begin the cover letter. The answer is pretty simple. Ask yourself if you have the skills that is demanded by this particular designation you are applying to. Start your cover letter with a respectful sir or madam, addressing the person (HR manager, recruiter General Secretary etc) to whom you are sending your resumes to. Then begin that having A experience and B skills you would like to apply for the advertised position.

 

Don’t be shy about highlighting your skills. Especially if they are relevant to the position you have in mind. For example if it’s a marketing job you have applied for, then do not hesitate to include the awards you fetched ( ex salesman of the year), the leads you converted etc. If it is a market research job you are applying for, then dont forget to bring attention to your research, surveying and analytical skills, if you have had experience in interpreting statistics, winning case study competition, mention it! Also as practical or hands on experience counts for a lot in the corporate sector, always highlight if you have research experience or relevant papers published.

 

Now that you have mentioned all the skills that is particular to the position you are vying for, do not forget to mention some basic generic soft skills like teamwork skills, good communication ( written and oral) , ability to multitask, to work within deadlines etc. These are evergreen skills which are in demand in every sort of industry, whether manufacturing, technology or consumer goods.

 

Don’t : Put flamboyant and dramatic words like ‘’unique’’ ‘’perfect’’ to describe the company. Even if you do have a high regard for this firm, dont gush about how it is your dream to work for this company. You will seem as immature and desperate. Enthusiasm is a welcome attribute from potential employees not desperation.

 

Don’t : Put your contact at the bottom of the page, it should be near the top of the cover letter.

 

Don’t : Commit grammatical and punctuation errors. These put off the recruiters. Make your cover letter as easy to read and comprehend as possible.

 

 

 

 

Problems Faced By Indian Engineering Students Today :

 

 

One of the major problems millions of engineering graduates face in India today, ………is that there are way too many engineering graduates in India. Chronic unemployment has become an embarrassing issue, plaguing the engineering sector. One of the main reason for this persistent problem of unemployment among the young engineers is that there are way too many engineers in India.

The basic rule of economics demand versus supply applies here, the supply of engineering graduates, far exceed the demand (number of engineering jobs). So thousands of engineering graduates face an uncertain future by the time they graduate. Many engineers due to the lack of jobs often engage in professions which have very little to do with engineering like peon work, bank PO ( probationary officer), school teacher, BPO etc. This article addresses the ever growing problem of chronic engineering unemployment and will also share some tips on how to ameliorate this issue to some extent.

Lack of Practical Experience : This is in fact the crux of the problem. Every year a huge number of students graduate are just pen and paper engineers, – lots of theoretical knowledge with zero practical experience. Apart from the Tier 1 engineering colleges, most of the Tier 2 and 3 engineering are heavy on academics but give very little significance to practical learning or hands on training. There are little to no internships , industry visits etc. Students have almost zero industry experience, and their knowledge is limited to the books they have studied. There are too many CS engineers for example who don’t know how to programme and code efficiently.

Solution : The engineering colleges need to make the syllabus more profession or job oriented. With rigorous academics regular industry interfaces, and at least 3 internships should be introduced.

Outdated Syllabus : Unfortunately majority of the second and third tier engineering colleges follow an out of date syllabus. The students are not well versed in latest softwares, technologies prevalent in the industries. Obviously most of the IT firms are reluctant to hire such engineers who lack knowledge of in demand technologies. The companies consider these graduates a liability as lot of time and money have to spent in training them. According to reports most of the engineering graduates are unemployable. Many CS/IT students are virtually incapable of ensuring security in C code, and lack basic programming skills.

Solution : Update syllabus ASAP. Make the syllabus not exam oriented but industry oriented. Include advanced programming languages like Java, C, C++, Python, Ruby on Rails, etc

Curse of Rote Learning : The Indian engineering education system is exam oriented. Most of the 2nd and 3rd tier colleges discourages innovation and research, The students are made to quickly mug up thick tomes/books without understanding basic engineering concepts. Majority of the students study solely to get marks/pass exam and lack in depth understanding of basics of engineering.

Solution : Encourage more research and innovation in engineering institutes

Disinterested Students : Engineering after medical studies are considered by Indian parents as lucrative. Engineering courses are thought to be as ticket to higher pay packages in corporate world. Driven by this mistaken thought many middle class parents in India induce/force their . children to study engineering. Students who are not at all interested in the subject, take it up to pacify parents or due to peer pressure. As they are studying a subject they have little to no interest in, they yield average to below average results.

Solution : Education should be interest and aptitude oriented and not job oriented.

 

 

Waste-to-energy combustion

The history of combustion of solid wastes in the United States clearly demonstrates the controversial nature of this method of waste disposal. In 1960, a little over 30 percent of Municipal solid waste discards was burned in incinerators solely as a volume reduction practice. That percentage dropped rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s, reaching a low of less than 10 percent in 1980.

 

With increased emphasis on avoiding landfilling and with better incinerators that were designed to control emissions while generating useful steam or electricity, combustion of municipal solid waste has reached about 15 percent of municipal solid waste generation. A number of developed countries around the world rely heavily on incineration than does the United States, especially if they have high population densities. Japan , for instance , burn almost two thirds of its waste , while the incineration rate in Western Europe is roughly 30 to 40 percent.

 

     In the early 1990s , the United States had 190 municipal solid waste combustion facilities in operation that burned about 30 million tons of waste per year. By 2000, that number had dropped to 102 , and by 2015, it was down to 88. Those 88 facilities, however, were bigger and cleaner and they burnt more waste than those in operation in the early 1990s. Most of these are located in the Northeast and South, while the west has only half a dozen.

 

Incineration of  municipal solid waste as a method of disposal has a number of favourable attributes, including volume reduction, immediate disposal without waiting for slow biological processes to do the job, much less land area requirements, destruction of hazardous materials , and the possibility of recovering useful energy. There are also tradeoffs, for example, it is reasonable to question whether burning paper for its energy value, or recycling it to reduce the environmental impacts of virgin pulping is the best way to utilize the material.

 

On the negative side of combustion, poorly operated incinerators release toxic substances such as dioxins into the air. The ash recovered may be classified as hazardous material that requires special technological handling. Unfortunately, the public is generally reluctant to accept new technological innovations, especially if a facility is being proposed in their own area. There is also a concern for whether incineration is compatible with recycling. Once an incinerator has been built, a consistent pile of refuse must be maintained to pay it off.

 

There can be reluctance to expand a recycling program if it may reduce the fuel supply, and hence cash flow for the incineration system. In the general hierarchy of solid waste management, recycling is considered a better than incineration. So there are advocates who feel it is important to write into an incineration contract, the freedom to reduce the amount of garbage are provided any time, without penalty or other economic risk, when that reduction is due to an expansion in recycling.

Welding of wood

Have you ever wondered how to join two pieces instead of using glue? Say for example, can you join two pieces of wood to make it appear as a single piece? The answer lies in the fine craftsmanship of a mechanical engineer who knows the emerging science of “mechanically-induced wood flow welding” pretty well. Now to “weld” wood, which is quite a promising technology, you need to force pieces of lumber together by pressing (at 60 – 330 psi) and rubbing the parts to-and-fro at a very high speed for 4 to 5 seconds. The friction created in between the pieces heats and melts the primary components of wood, lignin and fibers present on the exposed surface. In the next few seconds, the molten lignin of both the surfaces intertwines in a matrix and finally solidifies when the friction movement is stopped and the interface cools down. It results in the formation of a full piece of wood of desired shape and size.

Laboratory for Timber Construction IBOIS of Ecole Polytechnique (EPFL), Switzerland applied the principle of friction welding to weld wood for the first time. The University of Tennessee has also been exploring the same area. Their research is mainly focused on the fabrication and application of welded timber panels. The research work has produced small-scale welded wooden samples successfully. Those samples have gone through tests of bending and shear-giving and have yielded positive results. Here it should be noted that the structural design of welded timber construction requires a calculation tool for strength prediction to make those lumber pieces work practically. Initially probabilistic methods were used to determine the load bearing capacity. There the welded joints had both parallel and perpendicular natural fiber patterns. The mathematically calculated and experimentally determined strength were found to stay in good agreement with each other. Further research in this sphere will encourage investigations into more complex systems.

Now let us come back to the basics and take a tour of the history of welding science. As a preconceived belief, welding is possible using only a good conductor of thermal energy and electricity. The parent materials should be joined in such a manner that the physical and the chemical properties of the welded portion remain same as the matter itself. Not only the finished product should look like a single piece but must also retain the ditto chemical qualities. Therefore welding of wood, if judged in this light, does not seem to have any real life acquaintance. However, standing in 2016, this chapter in mechanical engineering has passed the test of time in the very ritualistic way of how welding is done. It is an almost unthinkable phenomenon! After all, Science never fails to surprise. At every instance, and that too in a very pleasant way.

  • ·        Reference:

The websites of EPFL & the University of Tennessee

Mechanical Knee Joint

Amputation involves the removal of the leg to a level above the diseased area. Amputation will only be advised once all other options to save the leg have been looked at.

Disarticulation of knee means amputation through knee joint. Various artificial knee joints are manufactured for pain relief, mobility, prevention of gross infection, and prevention of growth of a tumor. A joint is formed where two bones make contact. Mechanical knee joint helps relative motion and provide support to the human body. Mechanical knees are mainly of two types: single-axis and multi-axis. Single-axis knees comprise of hinge and they are considered to be the simplest, most economical and the most durable. The drawback is that they do not have stance control. That means amputees need to use their own power to keep themselves stable when standing. This type of knees have constant-friction control and a manual lock to prevent the leg from swinging forward rapidly. Multi-axis or four-bar knees are more popular because they have multiple axes of rotation, which allow stability, yet an easy-to-bend swing. Another advantage and popular option of polycentric knee or multi-axis knee is that the leg’s overall length shortens in stride, reducing the risk of stumbling. Polycentric knees are suitable for many amputees, including those who cannot walk securely with other knee and those who have knee disarticulation or bilateral leg amputations, or have long residual limbs. Several polycentric knees have fluid (pneumatic or hydraulic) swing control, which permit variable walking speeds.

Mechanical Knee Joint

Hydraulic control systems are considered to function very close to a normal knee. Hydraulic systems use liquid, usually silicone oil, to respond to a range of walking speeds. Although they provide a smoother gait, they are heavier, require more maintenance, and are more expensive, at least initially. Pneumatic control systems use pistons inside cylinders containing air. These cylinders are compressed as the knee is flexed. It stores the energy like a spring and then returns the energy to the knee as it is extended. A spring coil may be added for additional control. Pneumatic systems are considered to provide better swing control to friction knees, but to be less effective than hydraulic systems.

Ohio Willow Wood from Ohio, Össur from Iceland, Zimmer Biomet from Warsaw, Indiana, Stryker Corporation from Michigan, United States are among the few who have been manufacturing various types of knee joints. Össur Total Knee® 1900 and Total Knee 2000 are for low level activity and single speed walking, whereas Total Knee 2100 is for highly active lifestyle. Plus there is also GeoFlex™ Knee from Ohio Willow Wood. It  is specially designed for wearers who are just learning to walk or are less active.

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EVOLUTION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY AND ITS CURRENT SCENARIO

Electronics industry came up in the1900s when the electron tube was invented by Sir John Ambrose Fleming. But in 1960 analog devices were invented, which brought in a revolution in the industry. In the 1970s the consumer electronics was developed. In these years, the dominance of the U.S.A was approaching its end with many new economies showing up.

Electronics industry in India took off around 1970. It was followed by consumer electronics mainly with transistor radios , black & white TV and audio products. In 1986, the import of colour T.V in India allowed by the Govt. revolutionised the consumer electronics field. After a decade, the Indian Govt. allowed the export of various components and products for the following segments.

  1. Entertainment electronics.
  2. Optical storage devices.
  3. Electromechanical equipments.
  4. Telecom equipments.

 

EVOLUTION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY

In the year 2005 overall consumption was only 2%. In 2010 consumption touched 6% . However, the export performance of electronic instruments enhanced in the following years. It touched 1500 billion by 2013-14.

The share of electronics production in GDP has also been growing over the years . from 1.6% share in 2001-02, it has increased to 2.01%in 2009-10.

Market for electronic products in India has witnessed strong growth in the recent years due to several factors, such as manufacturing growth , growth in disposable income , retail boom, attractive financial scheme , entry of new players in the market , distribution network in rural areas , awareness on the need for electronics products in rustic zones , presence of gray market in consumer products specially DVD player , music players and so on.

Indian consumer electronic devices market has been defined as the market for computing devices. It  is projected 3000 billion by 2018. This is expected to increase to 5000 bilion by 2017 through rise of income levels & growing affordability. It is a fact that only 9 out of 1000 people in India use computers, one-fifth of that of  China, while handset population penetration is about 57 %.

However, there is a good news. From 2012 a geometrical growth in Led TV Set & Touch Screen Phones was registered in India. BMI has forecasted that the sale of Indian consumer electronics will touch 10000 billion by 2020.

SMART STREET LIGHTING

A large amount of electrical power in most of the countries is consumed in lighting the streets. Street Light Control (SLC) is an innovative light management system for street lighting. Street lighting control facilitates reduction of energy conversion, CO2 emission and light pollution. The street light software allows to keep the entire street lighting under control. Street Light Control thus saves energy and reduces operational costs, increases security and flexibility of the lighting.

 

SMART STREET LIGHTING-EE

Street Light Control:

WLAN, now-a-days, in the public place is no longer a distinct vision and not a huge or difficult project. The ever-increasing demand introduces the street light control light management system. The latest generation of the street light control system wirelessly connects luminaries in the network based on the new future-safe IP V6 network standard. Information is transmitted from light head to light head and communicated in clustered form via routers over the internet to the central control point. The system is so flexible that it searches from another path in an intelligent and self-restoring way if one unit fails.

 

Light masts as a part of traffic and parking management:

This radio network is available everywhere, where these luminaries have been installed and can become the backbone for completely new smart city services- on the one hand for area wide information network structures in towns and cities, and on the other for new sensor supported services. For example, it may be effective for detecting vacant parking lots or measuring traffic density, to navigate drivers to parking space or to guide complete traffic flows through urban areas.

 

Intelligent Street Light System using GSM

 

Main Functions:

Remote on / off, dimming and on-side status check

System fault detection or alarm

Anti-theft detection / alarm

Date management (energy consumption report)

24 hour online monitoring

Reduce energy use upto 40%

Reduce maintenance upto 50%

increase bulb life upto 25%

 

Unique Characteristics:

Detecting failures of any node

Tolerance to communication network

Dynamic network topology

Smart street lighting system integrates new technologies offering ease of maintenance and energy savings. The mentioned systems are appropriate for street lighting in remote as well as urban areas where traffic is low at times. Along with energy savings, it also tackles with problems of power theft. Moreover, it is capable of taking corrective actions in case of unprecedented events of climate changes.

 

ADULTERATION OF FOOD

Food is essential for proper growth and development of life. In earlier days, mankind would prepare all eatables at home- meals that were fresh, clean and healthy. But in the modern time, human life is too occupied. As a result we consume food items and other necessary eatables bought from market. But at the end of the day we cannot be sure about how healthy we have eaten .Today almost all food items that we are consuming from the market have some or the other kind of adulterant that can harm human health, moderately or decently.

Adulteration of food is defined as the act of intentionally reducing the quality of food which is offered for sale either by mixing of impurity into substances or by the removal of some valuable ingredients. Some common adulterants in food are below:

ADULTERATION OF FOOD

ADULTERATION OF FOOD

 

i) Water, starch , glucose , sugar, urea, detergent and synthetic milk in milk .

ii) Chalk powder and urea in sugar .

Iii) Sugar solution in honey.

iv) Washing soda , metanil yellow colour in jaggery .

v) Brick powder , salt powder or talc powder in chillies powder .

vi) Mineral acid in vinegar .

Vii) Exhausted tea , iron -fillings in tea leaves .

Viii) Malachite green in green vegetables.

 

QUICK TEST FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SOME COMMON ADULTERANTS IN FOOD AT HOME :

 

Food article Adulterant Method for detection
 

 

 

 

 

 

MILK

STARCH(used for thickening milk) Add a few drops of Iodine solution (available in medical store ). Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of starch
UREA(used to increase protein value ) Take a teaspoon of milk and 1/2 teaspoon of soya bean in a container and mix well. After 5 minutes dip a red litmus paper in it. A change in colour from red to blue indicates the presence of urea in milk.
DETERGENT Shake 10 ml of milk sample with 10 ml of water for 5 minutes . If lather is formed , it indicates the presence of detergent .
 

SUGAR

UREA On dissolving in water, it gives out the smell of ammonia.
CHALK POWDER Dissolve 10 g of sugar in a glass of water and allow settling. Chalk will settle down at the bottom.
 

GREEN VEGETABLES

MALACHITE GREEN Take a cotton piece soaked in liquid paraffin (mineral oil) and rub the outer surface of green vegetable. If the cotton turns green, we can say that vegetable is adulterated with malachite green.
IODIZED SALT COMMON SALT Cut a piece of potato, add salt sample, wait for a minute and add two drops of lemon juice . Salt sample will turn blue. In case of common salt there will be no blue colour.

Adulteration of food not only cheats the consumer, but also poses a serious risk to health. Many people have not sufficient knowledge about purity and quality of food articles that they consume. Because mere visual inspection does not serve the purpose especially when adulteration is done with high degree of sophistication. Due to huge demand of a variety of food and lack of general awareness, a lion’s share of food items is adulterated regularly by merchants and traders who are unscrupulous and want to make a quick profit.

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