Career prospects in Different Branches of Civil Engineering :


Civil Engineering is one of the oldest branches of engineering. Civil engineers basically design, construct, and maintain infrastructures such as railways, roads, bridges, dams etc. Civil engineers will always be in demand in developing and developed countries. as infrastructures are always needed in such nations.

Due to the constant need for infrastructure, there will never be dearth of civil engineers. In this essay we will discuss the several branches of engineering and also discuss the career prospects :


Construction Engineering : This branch deal with planning and construction of infrastructures. The construction engineers work in tandem with site development, transportation, structural, environmental engineers to create stable, long lasting infrastructures. The construction engineers are in charge of the field work or site supervision. They undertake not just engineering activities but also managerial duties.

Who Will Hire You : Graduates with this specialization can look forward to work in companies such as Larsen & Toubro, Tata Projects etc

Tentative Fresher Salary : According to Payscale they get as much as 4 lakhs per year.


Structural Engineering : Structural Engineers undertake the responsibility designing and analysing structures. The responsibilities of structural engineers are immense, since it is they who ensure that the infrastructures – railways, roads, bridge are safe and secure and will be able to withstand, vagaries of weather and time. and must be able to sustain in spite of climatic changes and disasters. They must ensure that the infrastructures adhere to the country’s safety regulations.

Tentative Fresher Salary: Payscale reports that freshers can earn upto 5 lakhs per year.

Who will Hire You : Graduates can work for public sector and also work for private sector companies like BPC India, Keller India etc.


Surveying : These engineers survey and level the land – to map and contour the terrain. They execute various responsibilities like locating property lines, bridges, channels, highways, pipelines etc.

Who will Hire You : Graduates can look forward to work at IndiaBulls Real Estate, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd etc.

Tentative Fresher Salary : Freshers can earn upto 3 lakhs per annum.


Hydraulic Engineers : These engineers are in charge of designing and constructing water structures like dams, canals, banks and other water distribution system. They are also in charge of making sure the water structures are built in accordance to safety measures.

Tentative Fresher Salary : Freshers can get upto 4 lakhs per annum.


Environmental Engineers : These engineer study, analyse and come up with practical solutions to important environmental problems and disasters. They are in charge of coming up with eco friendly designs, coming up with sewage and waste management systems etc. A subset of this type of engineering are earthquake engineers who analyse seismic forces and predict how structures will react to earthquakes.

Who will Hire You : Such engineering graduates can work with firms such as Team Taurus, Doshion Limited etc.

Tentative Fresher Salary : Environmental engineering grads can earn upto 4 lakhs per year.


Municipal Engineering : These engineers usually work alongside the municipality in planning and management of a locality.

Tentative Fresher Salary  : Freshers can get up to 3 lakh per annum on metropolitan cities.


Material Engineering : These engineers determine the strength of materials used in construction – such as cement, brick and mortar. They work alongside construction engineers on infrastructure building.

Tentative Fresher Salary : Material engineering graduates can earn upto 4 lakh INR per year.


Geotechnical engineering : These engineers basically measure the strength of the soil and determine if they are able to tolerate the strength of the structures. These engineers will analyse soil, rocks etc and determine their capacity for accommodating infrastructure.

Top 4 Things Every MBA Student Should Do

MBA is first and foremost a professional course. The MBA can be a highly profitable course, and a gateway for achieving a foothold in your target industry. However MBA is profitable for only those who know how to utilize it . So without any further ado, we are providing some tips on how to make the most of your MBA programme!


Read up on Market Trends : Whether it’s the FMCG sector that gets you going, or the BFSI (Banking and Financial services sector) that has motivated you to take up the MBA, – you must be up to date with the latest market trends. Do some basic research on the key players, and the competitors, up and coming companies, what they offer etc. This will set you apart from peers as, most of your peers will be qualified students but you will already be proving yourself as a prospective professional.


Brush Up Communication Skills : Unlike the Engineering where you can still concentrate on technical skills and not worry over-much on social skills ( though that’s changing these days) the MBA is a professional programme that requires a huge amount of networking. You will be attending a lot of networking events, industry interfaces and visits where you will be interacting with upcoming entrepreneurs, C suite executives of large firms and other seasoned industry veterans. You will need to make a good impression – as internships and pre placement offers often blossom from these events. So you have to ensure that your communication skills are top notch.


Develop Teamwork Skills ; The MBA prepares you for working in corporate sector. In real life professional world, team projects are inevitable. So during the course of MBA you will be participating in a lot of teamwork and projects. Try to prioritize teamwork and focus on building team leadership skills.


Find Mentorship : In order to succeed in profession, finding a mentor is of paramount importance. You can find a mentor amongst the faculty, or you can seek mentorship from experienced professionals that visit the campus during industry interfaces. Mentorship, is something you should actively seek.
A good mentor can be your friend, philosopher, and guide in you early days in the profession. They can prevent you to commit some serious gaffes many novices commit at the beginning of their career. Mentors can also provide you opportunities for breaking in a particular industry via recommendations. So finding a good mentor is of the utmost importance.

Top 10 Mistakes That Can Really Mess Up Your Software Engineering Career

Lets face it, we all make mistakes. As the phrase goes ‘’To err is human.’’ And if you are a green graduate, oven fresh from grad school, just on the verge of beginning your career, then committing a few mistakes, some embarrassing gaffes here and there is inevitable. No one expects a green fresher to be impeccable at his job. But there are some mistakes you should avoid, if you don’t want to ruin your career. If you are a fresh, green engineering graduate, looking forward to embark on an exciting and challenging career in engineering, then this essay is for you. Today we will illustrate some important common mistakes that most engineers end up committing and how you can avoid them.

  • Starting Projects Impulsively : Many engineers impulsively begin their projects, without consulting other engineers , marketing department and market research dept. Don’t do that. Don’t just limit yourself to the atypical technical mental set up. Technology is not the be all and end all of a product. If you create a product randomly without paying proper heed to client needs and market requirements the project/product will be essentially useless.
  • Copy & Pasting Blindly : This mistake is committed by many young engineers . They blindly copy paste from earlier projects. Try not to do it too often. First of all, copy and paste reputation is one which you should avoid at all costs. Copy and pasting track record can be a red flag in your resume – firstly, it won’t go undetected for long. Too many similar looking projects will look fishy to your manager. Secondly copy pasting screams lack of innovation. An engineer is expected to be innovative at the very least.
  • Lack of Cross Cultural Ethic : This problem mainly occurs in the IT sector. Software engineers are often required to interact with foreign clients. Before interacting with such clients a basic knowledge of the etiquette of the country of the client. For example if you are interacting with a Japanese client, not addressing him/her as ‘’San’’ will come across as incredibly offensive.
  • Not paying attention to technical fundamentals : Neglecting technical basics like Design Pattern, Object Modelling, SQL injection etc can make a very bad impression.
  • Not Testing Your Code : You are not God. Therefore, your code is not free from errors. The sooner you learn this, the better. Many young engineers carried away by arrogance, neglect to test their code once they complete coding. Later its costs them their reputation and in some cases even their job. Also don’t neglect to ask for code review or feedback. You won’t appear less of a person for that.
  • Neglecting to analyse domains : Before programming, always conduct a checkup for the domain, and the users who frequent there. Otherwise you risk creating a useless programme. Engineers that keep in mind the question of user experience stands out from their peers who focus just on software development.
  • Neglecting to learn about other systems : Many engineers are adamant about focusing on their own systems and neglecting other systems. But learning about different systems can be beneficial, as when a system error occurs you will be able to solve it, and gain the attention of your manager. Problem solving aptitude is one of the prerequisites for promotion of an engineer.
  • Failing to take backup : Many engineers who lack foresight, fail to take backup, snapshots and remove all System.out.print. This will lead to a lot of needless woe when you need to access the same files once more.
  • Not Documenting : After you finish programming, please don’t forget to document it , otherwise you will greatly inconvenience your colleagues who will need to use or refer to it sometime or later. Not doing so, will make you the subject of lot of resentment.
  • Overusing Stack overflow : As mentioned before, if you cannot develop your own way of programming or writing code, and are heavily dependent on Stack overflow, what makes you stand out from your peers? Nothing. Get a clear knowledge of basic concepts and attempt to come up with your own way of code writing or programming. The less you push yourself, the more you depend on ‘’easy’’ solutions to problems, the less chance you will get promoted.
  • Job Hopping : Many new engineers often hop, skip and jump from one job to another. The reasons they cite vary from ‘’unsatisfactory’’ salary package, to getting ‘’bored’’ with the job, to feeling ‘’too stressed’’ , to falling out with the boss/manager. Our advice to those young engineers planning to quit after a few months on the job is : Develop patience. Rome wasn’t built in a day, and your career will not get built instantly either.

While it’s true that fresher salary might be somewhat low ( or not as high as you hoped), it will definitely rise, if you perform well. Salary raises, and promotions won’t occur magically. Some of the reason why freshers are paid a moderate to modest salary is that a.) they lack the technical expertise experienced professionals have and b.) The company has to spend a good amount of money training the freshers. If you job hop every now and then, then no employer will take you seriously. The industry is a small place and word gets spread around, and soon you will end up with a reputation of being unstable or disloyal

How To Make the Most of Your Engineering Semester


Confused how to waddle through the ocean of your engineering syllabus, keep up with the lectures and weekly projects/lab work, network effectively with the faculty, and still rock the semester results? Read on!


Most of the professional and vocational education in India have switched to semester system. Earlier there used to be one year end examination held. But the semester system has multiple examination structure, where exams are held on each completed module/unit etc. Though semesters can be somewhat stressful for students , it pays off well as the syllabus get covered fast and the students are introduced to regular, disciplined studying. In this essay we shall cover how to survive engineering semester like a pro!


Start Planning  : If you fail to plan, you plan to fail. This is particularly applicable when you are facing engineering semesters. Have a fixed goal in mind – focus on some particular set of skills you want to develop as an aspiring engineer and work towards it. Make a separate plan regarding academics . Formulate a study plan which is convenient for you, and stick to it religiously. You don’t rush in a marathon of finishing the syllabus ASAP, but try to learn something everyday.


Smart Studying Key to High GPA : Many engineering students complain that they struggle to keep up with the vast engineering syllabus which are full of confusing theories, probabilities, paradigms, formulas etc. We would suggest : Rather than trying to mug all the information up, try to visualize the information, try to find real world/practical examples. maintain a different copy/lodger for formulas.


W For Workshops : The best way to learn about engineering is to apply the laws. A good engineer is not just one who knows his theories, but is also proficient in applying those laws to solve real world technical problems. If you are studying in a quality university, chances are that there will be plenty of workshops where you will get a chance to work on live projects. This will not just provide you hands on experience, but also add to your resume – will compensate from lack of working experience that fresh graduates lack.


Utilize Online Resources Judiciously : Many quality engineering colleges have rich online resources where students can address their queries and get helped by the faculty or by peers. This gives the students a great opportunity to clear up confusions outside classroom. For ex at our institution. Brainware Engineering College, we have online student’s corner where the student addressed their confusions regarding a chapter and their queries are addressed almost immediately.


Group Discussion: This is one of the best way to learn and remember information fast. In group discussion you can discuss questions and answer and clear up confusion with classmates and can also help a peer clear doubts on a particular chapter/question. This way you can effectively revise what you have learnt.

Top Skills Required by Electronics Engineers


Electronics & Communication engineering is actually one of the most (if not the most) creative branches of engineering. The basic job of an electronics engineer can vary from designing various software components, like apps, electronic appliances and products, develop effective testing procedures for electronic systems , to examine electronic equipment and ascertain whether they are up to safety standards or not.

According to global consulting firm Ernst & Young, consumer electronics industry in India will grow by 13.4% by 2020 and reach will touch 20.6 billion . The ESDM ( Electronics System, Design & Manufacturing) sector in India is salted to reach $ 228 billion at 2020 according to EY.


As illustrated above the electronics sector is slated to be one of the fastest growing sectors of India – the jobs for electronics engineer are guaranteed to increase at a high rate. But just like any other professional course, only those with relevant skills will have access to quality well paying jobs. In this essay we will highlight a few of the key skills, electronics engineers are expected to have.


  • Basic Knowledge & Clear Concepts of circuit designing and digital logic block building


  • Working Knowledge of Development Board and semiconductor manufacturing process


  • Master the basics of troubleshooting. Troubleshooting – identifying and analyzing problems that has developed or can develop in a software or  hardware is a basic engineering skill which engineers like mechanical engineers, CS engineers, electrical engineers and electronics engineers must master. Also, debugging skills are a must.


  • Have knowledge on how to operate microprocessor and controller.


  • Must have a good grasp on programming languages like C language, Perl, Python, IC languages like Verilog and VHDL etc


  • Get educated on latest programming languages used by the telecom industry such as Matlab and Octave


  • Choose to specialize either in Analog or Digital. Then learn the nitty gritties of chosen specialization.


  • Soft Skills : Try as much as you can but just can’t deny the importance of soft skills. Mastering relevant technical skills is a must for all engineers, but soft skills – effective communication skills – especially the skill of explaining technical details to non technical people, organization and management skills, time management skills, negotiation skills, ability to team work effectively are skills which engineers must have – since most of them get placed in the corporate sector, where these skills are held in high value.

All said and done, successful engineers are those who choose to specialize in a particular skill and dedicate their lives to it. According to many recruiters the main problem of engineering graduates in India is that they do not specialize and get stick in generalist mode. As a professional and technical degree, engineering is an entirely skill based industry. The more specialized skills you can acquire, the more updated you keep yourself regarding the latest skill/technologies used by your sector, the more desirable you will be to the recruiters.

Benefits of having a CISCO Certification


The IT ( Information Technology) is one of the most competitive sector in our country. According to IBEF ( Indian Brand Equity Foundation) the IT sector employs about 10 million people every year.

So as you can see, the competition is fierce indeed- additionally engineering, specifically CS ( Computer Science ) is one of the most widely pursued courses in India- so if you have dreams of having a prosperous career in the IT sector, you have to do all you can in order to stand out from the crowd.


One of the ways you can acquire an edge over your peers is to acquire relevant job experience, and/or acquiring certifications. Having IT certifications like CISCO, Redhat, Oracle in your kitty is always desirable, as these certifications are a testament of your potential, and dedication. Today we will discuss the perks of having a CISCO certification.


The CISCO certification or the CCNA ( Cisco Certified Network Associate ) is a beginner level certification that is widely respected in the IT industry. If you are serious having a stable, well paying job in the networking domain then a CISCO certification can open multiple doors for you. We will share just a few perks of having a CISCO certification


Increased Employment Opportunities : Most employers are super keen on hiring CISCO certified professionals – not just because the certificate is very prestigious – employers get huge discounts on CISCO products if they hire CISCO professionals. Any company which uses CISCO devices will be eager to hire you.


Access to High Paying Jobs : Acquiring a CISCO certification can be a gateway to higher paying jobs. This is because having this certification basically means that you have proven knowledge about the fundamentals of networking. like installing, configuring and operating WAN, LAN, IP usage etc. You will be able to differentiate yourself among your peers


Promotion : A CISCO certification, will indeed pave the way for you to climb the IT ladder. It will fast track your career like never before. This is because CCNA certification is a difficult one and is not one which can be cracked by many. Having such a valued certification will set you a class apart from your peers.


So there you go – the benefits of having a CCAP certification are undeniable. If you are keen on having this lucrative certification in your kitty, then you must sign up, BSc or an MSc course in Hardware & Networking, provided by Brainware Engineering college. Aside from exposing you to an industry driven course tailor made for IT enthusiasts this will also include international certifications like CCNA.


9 Top Skills Which Electrical Engineers Must Master :


Here are 9 top skills which all electrical engineers must have if they want to make it as a successful ECE.

Ability to read Electrical Measurements accurately : This is one of the basic skills an ECE engineers must have a good grasp on


Ability to Handle Electrical Tools/Machines Efficiently : You must be comfortable reading, testing, machines, how to operate drives like SCADA etc.


Circuit Designing Skills : Synthesizing, debugging electrical circuits is a must have skill for ECE engineers. Also you should have a good knowledge of some software packages like Orcad, Eagle etc.
Become Programme Language Pro : In order to become an efficient ECE, you need to master a multitude of programming languages such as ARM, AVR, PIC, Java etc


Have a strong basics on maintenance of electric power plants and how to generate electricity.


Critical Thinking Skills : What most engineers often neglect to remember, engineers have to think up creative solutions to technological problems that are faced by laymen. So critical, problem solving approach is a prized trait all engineers whether mechanical, electrical or otherwise, must develope.


Up todate Knowledge : Engineering, no matter its branch, is heavily technology based. So constant learning and getting uptodate with latest technological developments is a skill which all engineers must have. If you do not update yourself regularly and educate yourself on technology daily then you will lag behind competitors – energetic, dynamic engineers who are always updating themselves.


Soft Skills : This is one area which engineers often neglect. Most engineers become so complacent thinking that mastering technical skills will be enough for them. Unfortunately mastering good communication skills is not optional anymore today as you have to demonstrate or explain products and apps in a lucid way to non technical clients.


Budgeting Skills : The best technology ( at least from the point of view of companies) is one that’s cost effective. So some basic budgeting skills, financial analysis skills is a must have for engineers.


Troubleshooting Skills : An ECE is always expected to diagnose and manage system so that they operate smoothly.


Smart Small Cell with Hybrid Beamforming for 5G


For several years in the past, fifth generation (5G) wireless communication has been actively discussed, both in the academia and the industry as a means of providing various mobile convergence services. Many 5G project groups have been established to propose service scenarios and target performance metrics. In the coming years, the amount of mobile data traffic is expected to increase tremendously .


Given this fact, one important application that most 5G project groups are likely to support is high data rate communications.  A key enabling technology to support a high data rate service scenario appears to be a small cell network. When a network is in the interference-limited regime, it is known theoretically that spectral efficiency per area increases linearly with the number of small cells.


From a spatial domain viewpoint, however, huge differences can be found in the wireless channel characteristics of small cell networks (e.g., outdoor-to-indoor or indoor-to-indoor) and those of conventional macro cell networks. Various channel environments may occur in a small cell network, since the space constraint for cell deployment can be greatly mitigated, thanks to the reduced deployment of time and cost.


in 5G cellular networks, a promising technology is one that exploits three-dimensional (3D) beam control. In practical situations, BSs and users are distributed in 3D space, such as in the urban cell scenarios . As the elevation angle of the ray propagation becomes influential, the 3D beamforming can increase both the cell average output and the 5-percentile user throughput.  A critical issue in addition to the 3D beamforming design is the performance evaluation method that reflects the 3D space accordingly. When it comes to 3D beam-forming gain, more elaborate simulation results may be produced by generating BSs and also produce users in both horizontal and vertical domains, rather than considering only a two- dimensional (2D) distribution.



In general, we do not consult any physician for health check up until some symptoms of ailment are observed. Similarly for RCC structures health assessments are performed when some abnormalities are observed in the structure or when quality control tests give poor results thereby failing to satisfy acceptance criteria.

The life of a concrete structure varies between 50-100 years. So a huge number of RCC structures are found to be completing their life span and subjected to different types of distresses. Complete demolition and rebuilding are difficult decisions to take. To improve performance and functional appearance different retrofitting and rehabilitation measures are taken.

Any such repair work is to be proceeded by health assessment of structure by which problem is diagnosed. After proper investigation the remedial measures can be adopted. In order to assess the health of any structure, basic protocol must be followed. As a thumb rule, we should follow the investigation steps while going for forensic study of concrete structure.


The prime objectives and procedural steps of retrofitting work are:

  • Finding the geography of the area where the structure is located
  • Knowing the history of the structure
  • Going thoroughly through the technical report
  • Performing visual inspection
  • Selecting non-destructive and semi-destructive tests that are needed to be performed on strength
  • Identification of the location of the spots for test
  • Determining causes of defects, analysis of the test results with proper engineering knowledge
  • Locating the area of weakness and prescribing the remedial measures to rehabilitate the structure
  • Making a list of repair and rectification works and reasoning to maintain the structure in future from similar problems/distresses


Proper maintenance extends the life of any old or existing structure. It can be classified as routine and special maintenance. The routine maintenance is performed at every one and two year’s interval to maintain aesthetic and functional requirement of the existing building. Special maintenance is required to restore the structural integrity whether any indication of abnormality is seen in the building.

Structure are made up of different construction materials such as brick, stones, concrete, steel, timber and combination of many others. In general, failures of these structures are not same and also the steps taken for rehabilitations will also not be the same. Merely knowing rehabilitation technique will be of no use to engineers. Prevention is better than cure. It is always desired to identify the reasons behind any failure and to eliminate them altogether, so that failure do not occur at any stage.

But it is practically impossible to eliminate all reasons behind the failure of the structure. Even if we have done good design, performed construction in the best possible way and time to time maintenance work is carried out, the structure cannot be declared as free from failure. The failures need to be analyzed, the nature and extent of damage should be assessed and then proper rehabilitation measures are to be undertaken. The repair and rehabilitation measures vary according to locations of damage. These include restoring structural integrity of major safety defects.

How To Create A Great Impression, On First Day Of Your Job



It’s day one of your job. You are a green graduate fresh out of college, this is your first job, your first exposure to the corporate world, your first ever paycheck…. it’s a landmark occasion in your life, that’s for sure. You feel understandably, extremely nervous. What if you fail to deliver? What if you fail to live up to all that you have claimed you were competent at in your resume? What if you do not get along with your colleagues? What if you stumble and have an awkward moment in front of your employer? In order to help you out through your first day at first job jitters, we are publishing a list of do’s and dont’s to help you make your way through the confusion and create a favourable impression on your first job.


Before you go through our list, remember one thing, in order to have a successful professional career, you have to unlearn all that you have learnt in your B Tech or MBA. Many graduates make a mistake assuming that all the theories that they have learnt in their college years will be applicable here. First thing you have to keep in mind that theories are a completely academic affair. Theories, conjectures, hypotheses, probabilities, these should stay where they are – in the university and the academia. The corporate world thrives on practical application of these theories. Due to several constraints such as time, budget, cultural and economic/financial trends many hypotheses might not be feasible in real world circumstances. This advice is more applicable to engineers who are often more wrapped up with exclusively the technical side of the business and cannot for a long time let go of the things they have learnt in college.


You have to remember that time, maximizing profits and minimizing cost and overheads are the most valuable objectives in the corporate world and an employee can make themselves invaluable by mastering the techniques to achieve these objectives.  So without any further ado, we will share the do’s and don’ts to follow on the first day of your first job.


Be Punctual : The easiest way for a fresh graduate to make a good impression on the employer is to be on time. Punctuality and deadlines are utterly important in the corporate world as time is precious for everybody. If deadlines are not followed then projects get delayed and business loses validity and clients. The first step of projecting yourself as reliable is showing up on time.


D For Dress Code : If you are not sure about the dress code- not all companies and firms have written rules for dress code, then do not hesitate to call up the HR and inquire about the appropriate dress. What you will wear to work, will often depend on the predominant company culture. If you are working on a creative job as a graphic designer/ copywriter for an advertising firm, then dress code will be a little more liberal. but if you are working in finance- investment, pvt equity  or accounting or as a business analyst, dress will be formal. In general avoid wearing a too flamboyant outfit at work. Wear colour coded clothes, that are prim, proper discreet and clean. Do not wear over the top make up and check if your shoes, socks, tie and nails are squeaky clean!


Don’t Forget To Bring Important Documents : You will need authentic personal documents as your office identity card, parking pass, paycheck items etc. There will be inevitably a ton of paperwork the first day. Don’t delay the process by neglecting to bring important documents like passport, voter’s id card, bank account information etc.


Notepad Is A Must : Since you are a newbie, do attempt to take notes. Carry your notebook and pen everywhere you go, you will be learning new things, note down when your employer discusses the company history, vision and mission with you, takes notes when the HR introduces you to the company culture. You will be seen as organized and diligent and these notes will act as valuable reference for later.


Accept Invitation to Lunch or Happy Hour : Don’t be the resident lone wolf. Socialize. Accept when colleagues offer happy hour or luncheon invitation. It will be an invaluable opportunity to get to know your colleagues, to discover like minded people to form a close knit group. Creating a group in office is important as they will keep you updated on the undercurrents of office politics and keep you informed about what to do and what not to do. There are certain unspoken rules in every office and only an experienced colleague on friendly terms with you can inform you about them.


Don’t Overshare : In a bid for friendship, don’t share unnecessary details about yourself. Remember that this is a professional setting. That person with whom you get along with like a house on fire, is not your childhood buddy he or she is your colleague. Your romantic problems, if you are having domestic problems etc your weird habits your co workers don’t need to know them. By oversharing you will be seen as laughing stock.