Archive for February 2016



Given below is a SURATH ROY’s number that can help us deduce the day of the week from any given date between 1900 and 2099.


Use the following data as your value of the month:


Non leap year  1          4          4          0          2          5          0          3          6          1          4          6

Leap year          0          3          4          0          2          5          0          3          6          1          4          6

Value the year from 1900 to 1999 =00

Value the year from 2000 to 2099 =06

How do you find out the day from a given data?

1)      First you put the value of the year                                                :

2)      Then  you put the value of the month                                           :

3)      Then  you put the last two digit of the year                                   :

4)      Next  you put the quotient arrived by dividing

the last two digit of the year by 4 (ignore the reminder)               :

5)       Last step is to put the date                                                            :



Total                                                               :

You divide the above total by 7.The remainder obtained will answer of your question –

            If it is 1, the day will be Sunday

            If it is2, the day will be Monday

           If it is 3, the day will be Tuesday

           If it is 4, the day will be Wednesday

           If it is 5, the day will be Thursday

           If it is 6, the day will be Fri day

If it is 0, the day will be Saturday




Example 1:  Find the day of 23rd February of the year 1983.

Ans:   1) First you put the value of the year                                    :           00

2) Then you put the value of the month                                :           04

3) Then you put the last two digit of the year                        :           83

4) Next you put the quotient arrived by dividing

the last two digit of the year by 4 (ignore the reminder)    :           20

5)  Last step is to put the date                                                :           23



Total                                                               :           130

When , Remainder=4

Hence the day was: Wednesday.


  Example 2:  Find the day of 30th  January of the year 2016.

Ans:   1) First you put the value of the year                                    :           06

2) Then you put the value of the month                                :           00

3) Then you put the last two digit of the year                        :           16

4) Next you put the quotient arrived by dividing

the last two digit of the year by 4 (ignore the reminder)    :           04

5)  Last step is to put the date                                                :           30



Total                                                               :           56


When , Remainder=0

Hence the day was: Saturday.



Studying of compact stars and Gravastars by Jayita Dan Department of Physics

The search for the exact solutions to describe static isotropic and anisotropicstellar configurations has been an interesting subject to the theoretical physicists for a long time. It was Tolman (1) who had developed a method for static spherically symmetric distribution of fluid by using the Einstein’s field equations. The study of general relativistic compact objects is of prime importance for Astrophysics. There are very few exact interior solutions for both isotropic and anisotropic stars which satisfy the required general physical conditions inside the star. So, the study of the interior of the general relativistic stars by finding exact solutions to the field equations is still an attractive field of research.


The striking idea of the white dwarf by Chandresekhar (2) the study of general

Relativistic compact objects received a tremendous upsurge to carry out research in the field of ultra- dense objects. White dwarfs are made of one of the densest forms of matter known, surpassed only by other compact stars such as neutron stars, quark stars/ strange stars, gravastars etc.


The term Gravastar was initially coined by Mazur and Mottola (3) in order to describe an alternative to black hole which could exist in a spacetime. Gravastars are formed by hard shell of small thickness, inside the shell there is the dark matter causes the –ve pressure inside and the outside region is the Schwarzschild vacuum with p=0. By the conjecture of Gravastar model the problem with the black hole singularity can be solved.


In the research scheme, we are interested to construct various models of compact stars and Gravastar and shall try to explain the physical characteristics under the requirement of general relativity of Einstein.



Parking-Made Easy: For a Better Tomorrow by Sandip Roy Department of CSE/IT/MCA

With the cost drop of sensors, reach of mobile devices and accessibility to the internet made almost everything around us from streetlight to seaport connected. Leading professionals at progressive companies agglomerates their views and come up with belief that Internet of Things, sensors connected in vast network enables machines to communicate each other, will be the hotcake research topic for upcoming decade. Traffic congestion caused by vehicle is a frightening issue and car parking is one of the major contributor to it. Thus parking is one of the major area where Internet of Things have major considerations. The major discrepancies in current parking system like price mismatch of street and garage parking and city streets clogged with bargain – made seeking drivers coiling for coveted free and metered parking place. Driving around in search of free parking plot is quiet an irritating and frustrating job for many people in cities around the world. Every day one million barrels of world’s oil burns due to searching a suitable vacant parking spot. It’s remain ponderous issue for busy hours or on weekends to spent more time for managing vehicles in large public places. To address this issue thousand brains seek for solutions day by day and try to build up some automated parking management system, which not only enable automated parking management but also solve billing issues of the customers.

parking made easySmart parking system involves real time processing of obtained information related to free parking space around a geographical region in order to place vehicle in vacant parking plot. Blend of low-cost sensor usage, real time data accumulation, pre knowledge analytic reports and mobile phone enabled automated tariff generating system facilitates residents and visitors to reserve parking or accurately predict in advance where the chances is higher nearby. It also helps in optimizing parking space usage and elucidates parking experience and add values to parking stakeholders. It enables in reducing CO2 emission and other pollutants during round about in search of parking spot. Thus smart parking is a tool for parking workforce management.

Already different companies are working on smart parking with their innovative mind and sight. Some have used robotics to automate the total parking system. Some have cater idea to use embedded sensors or wires to implement the smart system. IBM have contributed platforms like IBM Bluemix and PubNub to develop this kind of application to handle leveraged data focusing on the application logic without worrying about communication workflow mechanism.

Smart parking can integrate all aspect of parking management together to bundle up in an integrated system. From street level sensing to mobile application, analytics and system management software could be wrapped up in a single unit.  It just not only resolves a real life problem and relief vehicle owners from parking frustration but also give a rise to the revenue of the city too. True understanding and managing city’s parking makes a pavement towards smart city.

Quantum Computer – Generation Z is waiting, by Jayanta Aich, Dept of CSE/IT/MCA

We are living in the world of problems. Some of them can be solved and the others are left unsolved. The problems that can be solved by us, take different efforts. Many of them can be solved within a fraction of a second. Some others are solved within an hour, in a day or over a month. And the rest take time beyond our imagination. Even our “now-a-days computer” cannot solve them in their lifetime. A quantum computer is the first stepping stone to solve these nearly unsolvable problems. The concept is based on a physical feature of matter, called quanta. Nature of quanta is non-deterministic. This non-determinism introduces probabilistic nature to quantum computer. In this computation, uncertainty and probability replace the deterministic approach of our classical computer. Quanta are basic feature of any earthly material. We can consider quanta as a packet of energy or a cloud of energy, which can have mass and hence existence. So someone can consider quanta as energy or mass. But we don’t know when quanta acts like energy or when it behaves like mass. Thus it shows its uncertain nature and leads a problem to its solution with the probabilistic approach. In this new computing paradigm quanta are used as the processing unit to process data as well as the memory unit to store them.


Each and every unit based on each and every quanta called qubit. A qubit can store information 0 or 1 within it like a bit in our conventional computer system. If a qubit has 0 within it, it is denoted by |0> and spelled as ket-zero. Similarly 1 within a qubit is ket-one (|1>). Beside this, due to its probabilistic nature, a qubit can store information which contains some amount of zero and rest amount of one together as well. Therefore a qubit can be treated as |0> and |1> both at the same time. This situation is called superposition. But a superposed qubit cannot shows the nature of |0> or |1> in full. Rather it shows the nature of |0> with some probability and the nature of |1> with the rest. Let us consider a qubit X is showing the nature of |0> with probability ‘a’ and the nature of |1> with probability ‘b’, then we can express X as |X> = a.|0> + b.|1>, where a2+b2=1, since we know the summation of probability should be always 1. So a qubit can solve a simple uncertain problem with probabilistic approach. Hence, a millions of qubits can act together to solve a nearly unsolvable problem. In recent years, researchers and scientists of different countries have developed some basic quantum gates to perform quantum operations. Different quantum algorithms are already invented to solve various problems. Indian scientist, L. K. Grover proposed a quantum database search algorithm, which can find the required information from a large chunk of unordered data in very less time. Although we are not able to implement these algorithms on a physical quantum machine till date, but the days are not so far when we can solve some of those nearly unsolvable problems with quantum computers in no time.

Visual Cryptography by Ayan Mukherjee, MCA/CSE/IT Department

With the rapid progress of the Internet, the transferring of digital media over the internet becomes more and more popular. So, the copyright protection of digital data becomes a very important concern because the digital data can be available and distributed easily over the Internet.


Visual Cryptography is a new cryptographic technique which allows visual information, printed text, handwritten notes, pictures, etc. in a very secure way which can be easily decoded by the human eye which is a visual system. The basic model contains a printed page of ciphertext and printed transparency which works as the secret key. Visual Cryptography (VC) is a method of encrypting a secret image into shares so that the secret image can be revealed by stacking a sufficient number of shares.


Naor and Shamir introduced an easy but very secure process which permits secret sharing without any cryptographic computation, termed as Visual Cryptography Scheme (VCS).  The idea is to convert the written material into an image and encode this image into ‘n’ shadow images. The decoding needs finding some subset of these ‘n’ images, which makes transparencies of them, and stacking them on top of each other. Each page of the ciphertext is decrypted by a different transparency. So we can compare it with one time key. The main advantage of this system is anyone can decrypt the ciphertext without any knowledge or without performing any cryptography related computation.


This basic model can be extended into a visual variant of the ‘k’ out of n secret sharing problem: When we are having a written message, we would create ‘n’ transparencies. Now the original message can be viewed if any ‘k’ (or more) of them are stacked together. But if less than ‘k’ transparencies are stacked one after another the message cannot be visible now. The real encryption problem can be viewed as a 2 out of 2 secret sharing problem.


The simplest type of the visual secret sharing problem makes an assumption that the message is a collection of black and white pixels. Each pixel is processed separately and original pixel comes in ‘n’ modified versions, called shares, one for each transparency. Each share consists of ‘m’ black and white subpixels. The subpixels are printed very close to each other. In effect of this, the human visual system averages their individual black/white contributions. The output can be expressed as an n x m Boolean matrix S = [sij] where sij = 1 if the jth subpixel in the ith transparency is black. When transparencies i1, i2, ….ir are put together as a stack in a manner which properly aligns the subpixels, we can view a combined share, where the black subpixels are represented by the Boolean “or” of rows i l , i 2 , . . . i r in S. The grey level of this combined share is proportional to the Hamming weight H(V) of the “or”ed m-vector V. This grey level is interpreted by the visual system of the users as black if H(V) >= d and as white if H(V) < d – αm for some fixed threshold

1 <= d <= m and relative difference α>0.


Because of its simplicity for the end user, this new area of cryptographic domain is becoming very popular and becomes the research interest of most of the researchers in this field.

How do you feel? by Jaybrata Chakraborty Dept of MCA/CSE/IT

It is often difficult to answer this question. Imagine your lonely world you are talking with a computer and sharing your thoughts. To do so the computer must understand “how do you feel?”.

Human machine interaction are widely used nowadays in many applications. One of the medium of interaction is speech. The main challenges in human machine interaction is detection of emotion from speech.  There are several applications of speech emotion recognition system. Emotion can play an important roll in decision making, if emotion can be recognized from speech then a system can act accordingly. An efficient emotion recognition system can be useful in the field of medical science, robotics engineering, call center application etc. When two persons interact to each other they can easily recognize the underlying emotion in the speech spoken by the other person. Human first analyze the different characteristics of the particular speech and then using previous experience or observation he recognize the emotion of the speaker. The objective of emotion recognition system is to mimic the human perception mechanisms. Identification of emotion can be done by extracting the features or different characteristics from the speech and then a training is needed for a large number of speech database to make the system accurate. The steps towards building of an emotion recognition system are, an emotional speech corpora(collection of speeches) has been selected or implemented then emotion specific features are extracted from those speeches and finally a classification model is used to recognize the emotions.


A suitable choice of corpora plays a very important role in the field of emotion recognition. A context rich natural speech database are preferred for a good emotion recognition system.  Mainly 3 types of corpora are used for developing a speech emotion recognition system they are :


Elicited emotional speech database: This type of data are collected from speaker by creating artificial emotional situation. Advantage of this type of database is that it is very close to the natural database but there are some problems also, all emotions may not be available and if the speaker aware of that they are being recorded then the emotion expressed by him may be artificial.


Actor based speech database: This type of speech data collected from professional and trained artists. Collecting of these type of data are very easy and a wide variety of emotion are available in the corpora and .But the main problem of this type of database are it is episodic in nature and it is very much artificial in nature.


Natural speech database: This type of database created from real world data. These are completely natural in nature and very useful for recognition of real world emotion, though all emotion may not be present and it consists of background noise.


Features of a speech can be used to identify the difference between several emotional statements.   Different features represent the characteristics of a vocal tract and hearing system of humans. To build an emotion recognition system it is very much important to extract various acoustic prosodic features from speech signal. The acoustic prosodic features of speech signal are pitch, amplitude, formants and spectral features.


A classification system is an approach to set each speech to a proper emotion class according to the extracted features from them. There are different classifiers available for emotion recognition. There is no thumb rule for choosing a proper classifier most of the cases the choice of classifier made based on past references. Features extracted from each speech sample (feature vector) supplied as an input to classifiers with a linear combination of real weight vector W. This weight vector then adjusted with a proper training method. An activation function is then used to generate the output of the classifier which mapped each input to a previously set emotion class. This activation function may be linear or non linear. According to the nature of activation function classifiers can be categorized into two category namely linear classifier and non linear classifier. Linear classifier will classify accurately if the feature vectors are linearly separable. In real life scenario most of the feature vectors are not linearly separable so a nonlinear classifier is a better choice. There are various nonlinear classifiers available for emotion recognition, namely SVM (support vector machine), GMM(Gaussian mixture model), MLP(multilayer perceptron) , RNN(recurrent neural network), KNN(K-nearest neighbours), HMM(hidden Markov model).


Hollow Clay Brick Wall by Sujata Purakayastha, Department of Civil Engineering

hollow clay brick wallHollow clay bricks can be used as Civil Engineering guiding materials for specific functions. It can improve thermal insulation performance of building walls by reducing building wall loads. It has two phases. One is solid phase and the other is pore and void phase. Worldwide, the possibility of improving block wall insulation has already been studied by increasing porosity of bulk material. The reason for usage of hollow clay brick is to improve the energy efficiency of built structures in terms of thermal insulation, during both winter and summer. Heavy clay blocks are the most frequently used basic materials for construction in India as well as worldwide. From the consideration of increasing tendency to reduce cost production and installation by achieving better insulating properties, it is necessary to introduce new solutions. Existing solutions to thermal insulation problems are provisions of different systems of walls as well as addition of layers like polystyrene, sandwich panels, thermal insulation mortars, etc., which significantly increases the cost of construction.

hollow, clay, brick wallThere is a scope of further research based on the geometry of the products, thickness of the walls and the number of cavities if we use clay as the basic material. There are also some possibilities of using different secondary raw materials like industry waste which will decrease waste quantities and reduce primary raw materials consumption.



CIVIL ENGINEERING MARVELS OF THE WORLD by Satyendra Nath Chattopadhyay, Department of Civil Engineering


Civil engineering means an engineering practice, the development of which means more civilization. Ancient people first needed a shelter, a source of fresh water and a means to cross rivers and lakes. Thus, buildings and structures, bridges and water purification, collection and distribution have come under the scope of civil engineering. With time, more areas such as roads, sewage treatment and disposal, water management for harvesting  and controlling of floods, study of soil on which a structure stands have added in the branch of civil engineering. Even, as on date many sub-areas and inter-disciplinary areas are getting added in the branch of civil engineering – the base line is one – it must add to the civilization.

Photo – Great Bath at Mohenjo Daro

Civilization is 5000 years old. The modern day concepts of structural engineering and soil mechanics have started trickling only from 75 years back. It means that with basic knowledge of physics, mathematics, plane and solid geometry along with co-ordinate geometry ancient people could make beautiful layout planning and with the knowledge of arches and domes, the suspended portion could be tackled. The brick preparation technology was meticulously developed and bonding of bricks which can be seen on broken ancient structures shows the adequate knowledge of chemistry was applied for preparation of bonding materials between bricks. The brick bonding is so strong that broken pieces of thousands of years old structures are inseparable even on date.

Old structures are basically of two types. One is the type which is at least one thousand years old. Structures of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, Nalanda, Konark, Ajanta and Elora, Rajgir and many other structures of Europe before industrial revolution come under this category. Seeing these structures, one get astonished how beautiful and simple is the geometric concept, how nice is the sense of aesthetics, how beautifully the structures are oriented to get the best utilization of sunlight, how scientific was the ventilation system and also how nicely the drainage was planned. This is the time when the mud brick concept has not come and the entire structure was made of stone blocks. The question comes how such massive stones were placed one after another without the help of modern day cranes etc. The second astonishing point is that how the stone joinery material was developed. History of course says that there was fantastic development of inorganic chemistry even in the time of Puranas and Vedas.

Photo – Harappan Architecture

The second type is the structures which came post industrial revolution era till mid twentieth century. Then mud bricks were sufficiently developed and usage of structural steel sections had started. Beautiful Victorian structures of Europe and those of Pathans and Mughals era are the examples of this category. Extensive use of timber, clay tiles, surkhi and lime is the special feature of this era. Steel joists were placed closely overlaid by stone slab to cater as suspended slab.

Only time will say whether modern day construction with application of latest technology is superior to other categories or not. For that those have to withstand natural calamities, earthquakes, floods etc. for thousands of years. If not, then ‘The Tajmahal’ may continue as marvel or wonder for another couple of hundred years.

Definitely wonders are designed and constructed even on date. The euro-tunnel, numbers of long span bridges in South Korea and Japan, the rail link through mountain connecting mainland China and Tibet are the examples of such.

Marvels are no more linked with hugeness and elegance of a structure. Now, Marvels are those which are constructed controlling the cost and time disturbing people the least in thickly congested area. From that point of view, many flyovers of Kolkata with prefabricated T-portals are one of the best examples of modern day marvels.


Photo – Ellora Cave Temple

Photo – Buddhist Painting on Ajanta Cave Wall

Photo – Konarak


Financial Inclusion & “Bharat ki achhe din” by Sudipta De, Dept. of Management

The success of any nation depends upon its productivity and national income. National income depends upon employment generation and industrialization. Therefore success of a country depends on three resource pillars. These are human resources, financial resources and knowledge based resources which is more synonymous as skill. India is the second largest growing economy in the world and it yields demographic dividend from large proportion of young population.


The Government of India has started to foster the young population by providing skill based education. Around 10 million fresh Indian join its work force in every year. The absorption capacity of large and medium scale industry with respect to this huge skilled population is very low.  The remedy of such situation is self-employment and starting of own business based on individual skill and providing employment opportunities to the skilled neighborhoods. These entrepreneurial activities may be created in the field of construction, trading or day to day house hold supplies.  Government is trying to nourish the environment of entrepreneurship, because it is not possible for government to provide jobs for huge growing workforce. The prominent obstacle to start up new business is availability of seed capital and capital for further expansion of existing business. The huge proportions of these businesses belong to unorganized sector. The urge to procurement of seed capital recognized the importance of financial inclusion for easy accessibility of credit facility. The farmers, tannery workers, bidi binders, hawkers, lady tailors etc belong to unorganized sector and are still far away from accessing formal financial services. This financial exclusion has happened as a result of number of factors like: distance of local bank branches or ATMs, lack of financial education, unavailability of collaterals, high cost of financial services, poverty, lack of knowledge and information on credit facility, psychological barriers and other demand and supply side barriers.


The objective of financial inclusion is to convert unbanked population into banking population. Huge proportion of rural and urban populations still depend upon the credit facility of informal financial sector in spite of hefty interest rate. Therefore huge funds are still untapped in organized financial sector and bank cannot utilize this money for other development purposes. This hampers the growth of the economy and infrastructural developments. These unbanked populations cannot enjoy the facility of different banking products, like education loan, home loan, personal loan and other institutional credits. Financial inclusion is necessary to facilitate the unbanked population by providing banking services, like credit facilities, safe custodies, life and non-life insurances for up gradation of their standard of living and so on.


To promote financial inclusion, RBI has taken enormous initiatives. The few prominent initiatives are Pradhan Mantry Jan Dhan Yojana, no-frill bank account, handy and easy KYC norms, establishing bank branches in no-bank areas etc. The remarkable contribution to catalyst the financial inclusion and financial empowerment in the rural and urban areas is the implementation of E-governance. The AADHAR and the blessing of E-governance made the identification easier for new account opener and decreased the corruptions. AADHAR made the KYC norm easier and made it very easy to track the customers of a bank. The prominent challenges to overcome supply and demand barriers are not only financial inclusion but also financial education and financial stability. Financial education educates the population by providing financial awareness in the area of risk and operational process associated with different financial services, procedures to get credit facility and different services provided by bankers. This leads to wipe off the demand side barriers.


The financial inclusion facilitates to overcome supply side barriers. These altogether provide financial stability to the users of banking services. The government of India has come out with different types of policies in five year planning programs to provide financial stability to the rural and urban population. The most prominent milestone of this initiative is Mahatma Gandhi NREGA for rural India. To facilitate the rural and urban population the banks have tied up with NGOs and MFIs. The banks have started granting loans to poor people for their household and business requirements through NGOs and MFIs without collaterals and at zero loan processing costs. To facilitate the financial inclusion, the Government of India has adopted different steps. The subsidy on LPG is directly credited to bank account of the customers; different aids and assistance provided by government are distributed through electronic channel. The E-governance process made the compulsory bank account of the beneficiary. The initiatives for financial inclusion made the lives to live to fulfill, inspire, empowerment, recharge, inspired and prosper.



Implementation of Nanoparticle in Cancer Treatment by Dr. Rina Dutta, Assistant Professor, Physics Department


Nanoscience refers to one of the scientific and technological areas of 21st century research because of its importance to various domains of human need e.g. computers, biology, electronics, and material design. The use of nanoparticles in medicine is an advance topic of current research and has advantages over cancer therapies. Nanoparticles have certain properties e.g. size, shape, and biocompatibility which allow them to affect the human body differently than traditional therapies. Nanotechnologies have a great effectiveness of treating cancer. Magnetic field hyperthermia is made

more effective by the use of biocompatible super paramagnetic nanoparticles. Cancer is also being treated with gold nanoparticles which are able to select cancerous tissue and damage it by laser induced explosion.



(i)Magnetic Field Hyperthermia: Cancer Treatment with AC Magnetic Field


There are many different treatments for cancer. Hyperthermia is a possible treatment among the many others that is being studied. Hyperthermia is the heating of certain organs or tissues at temperature between 41°C and 46°C.

By heating tissue within that range it causes damage to the cells. Unfortunately, with hyperthermia, it is difficult to target specific cells, for example cancer cells, without using a targeting agent. To obtain a

more concentrated dose of hyperthermia, magnetic particles are used with magnetic fields at specific sites. In this technique nanoparticles absorb much more power from AC magnetic field and create a magnetic core that develops a magnetic moment. Once a magnetic field is applied the particle lines up along the field direction. With the change of the magnetic field, the particle will rotate to realign with the new field lines. Fields constantly change as they are within AC magnetic field and particles will constantly be rotating from one orientation to the other. This oscillation creates an energy transfer that causes friction and produce heat. This heat can build up hyperthermia in the tissue where the magnetic nanoparticles are present.

(ii)Laser-Induced Explosion of Gold Nanoparticles for Treatment of Cancer

Cancer is a deadly disease, and researchers are constantly looking for its treatment. Cancer cells along with viruses, bacteria and DNA can be damaged by nanophoto-thermolysis process with lasers and

gold nanoparticles. This is a favourable technique because if one damage cell is left, it can cause the cancer to regrow. When nanoparticles are irradiated by short laser pulses, the temperature rises very quickly and reach thresholds limit. As a result micro bubble formation, acoustic and shock waves are generated. These bubbles can then burst, sending out shockwaves through the abnormal cell. The force from the shock wave can disrupt the cell membrane and damaging them. This technique also allows healthy tissue to be spared. Healthy tissue will at times grow and replace the tissue damaged by cancer. This technique depends on laser wavelength, pulse duration, particle size and particle shape. All of these factors are vital in creating localized damage of the cancer cells and sparing healthy tissue.


The field of nanomedicine is new and growing rapidly. Nanoparticles are being used to increase image contrast of ultrasound, MRI technology, orthopedic implants etc. Overall, nanoparticles can be

used to create medical advances because of their unique qualities and applications.