Archive for the ‘Events’ Category.


Electronics industry came up in the1900s when the electron tube was invented by Sir John Ambrose Fleming. But in 1960 analog devices were invented, which brought in a revolution in the industry. In the 1970s the consumer electronics was developed. In these years, the dominance of the U.S.A was approaching its end with many new economies showing up.

Electronics industry in India took off around 1970. It was followed by consumer electronics mainly with transistor radios , black & white TV and audio products. In 1986, the import of colour T.V in India allowed by the Govt. revolutionised the consumer electronics field. After a decade, the Indian Govt. allowed the export of various components and products for the following segments.

  1. Entertainment electronics.
  2. Optical storage devices.
  3. Electromechanical equipments.
  4. Telecom equipments.



In the year 2005 overall consumption was only 2%. In 2010 consumption touched 6% . However, the export performance of electronic instruments enhanced in the following years. It touched 1500 billion by 2013-14.

The share of electronics production in GDP has also been growing over the years . from 1.6% share in 2001-02, it has increased to 2.01%in 2009-10.

Market for electronic products in India has witnessed strong growth in the recent years due to several factors, such as manufacturing growth , growth in disposable income , retail boom, attractive financial scheme , entry of new players in the market , distribution network in rural areas , awareness on the need for electronics products in rustic zones , presence of gray market in consumer products specially DVD player , music players and so on.

Indian consumer electronic devices market has been defined as the market for computing devices. It  is projected 3000 billion by 2018. This is expected to increase to 5000 bilion by 2017 through rise of income levels & growing affordability. It is a fact that only 9 out of 1000 people in India use computers, one-fifth of that of  China, while handset population penetration is about 57 %.

However, there is a good news. From 2012 a geometrical growth in Led TV Set & Touch Screen Phones was registered in India. BMI has forecasted that the sale of Indian consumer electronics will touch 10000 billion by 2020.


A large amount of electrical power in most of the countries is consumed in lighting the streets. Street Light Control (SLC) is an innovative light management system for street lighting. Street lighting control facilitates reduction of energy conversion, CO2 emission and light pollution. The street light software allows to keep the entire street lighting under control. Street Light Control thus saves energy and reduces operational costs, increases security and flexibility of the lighting.



Street Light Control:

WLAN, now-a-days, in the public place is no longer a distinct vision and not a huge or difficult project. The ever-increasing demand introduces the street light control light management system. The latest generation of the street light control system wirelessly connects luminaries in the network based on the new future-safe IP V6 network standard. Information is transmitted from light head to light head and communicated in clustered form via routers over the internet to the central control point. The system is so flexible that it searches from another path in an intelligent and self-restoring way if one unit fails.


Light masts as a part of traffic and parking management:

This radio network is available everywhere, where these luminaries have been installed and can become the backbone for completely new smart city services- on the one hand for area wide information network structures in towns and cities, and on the other for new sensor supported services. For example, it may be effective for detecting vacant parking lots or measuring traffic density, to navigate drivers to parking space or to guide complete traffic flows through urban areas.


Intelligent Street Light System using GSM


Main Functions:

Remote on / off, dimming and on-side status check

System fault detection or alarm

Anti-theft detection / alarm

Date management (energy consumption report)

24 hour online monitoring

Reduce energy use upto 40%

Reduce maintenance upto 50%

increase bulb life upto 25%


Unique Characteristics:

Detecting failures of any node

Tolerance to communication network

Dynamic network topology

Smart street lighting system integrates new technologies offering ease of maintenance and energy savings. The mentioned systems are appropriate for street lighting in remote as well as urban areas where traffic is low at times. Along with energy savings, it also tackles with problems of power theft. Moreover, it is capable of taking corrective actions in case of unprecedented events of climate changes.



Food is essential for proper growth and development of life. In earlier days, mankind would prepare all eatables at home- meals that were fresh, clean and healthy. But in the modern time, human life is too occupied. As a result we consume food items and other necessary eatables bought from market. But at the end of the day we cannot be sure about how healthy we have eaten .Today almost all food items that we are consuming from the market have some or the other kind of adulterant that can harm human health, moderately or decently.

Adulteration of food is defined as the act of intentionally reducing the quality of food which is offered for sale either by mixing of impurity into substances or by the removal of some valuable ingredients. Some common adulterants in food are below:




i) Water, starch , glucose , sugar, urea, detergent and synthetic milk in milk .

ii) Chalk powder and urea in sugar .

Iii) Sugar solution in honey.

iv) Washing soda , metanil yellow colour in jaggery .

v) Brick powder , salt powder or talc powder in chillies powder .

vi) Mineral acid in vinegar .

Vii) Exhausted tea , iron -fillings in tea leaves .

Viii) Malachite green in green vegetables.




Food article Adulterant Method for detection







STARCH(used for thickening milk) Add a few drops of Iodine solution (available in medical store ). Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of starch
UREA(used to increase protein value ) Take a teaspoon of milk and 1/2 teaspoon of soya bean in a container and mix well. After 5 minutes dip a red litmus paper in it. A change in colour from red to blue indicates the presence of urea in milk.
DETERGENT Shake 10 ml of milk sample with 10 ml of water for 5 minutes . If lather is formed , it indicates the presence of detergent .


UREA On dissolving in water, it gives out the smell of ammonia.
CHALK POWDER Dissolve 10 g of sugar in a glass of water and allow settling. Chalk will settle down at the bottom.


MALACHITE GREEN Take a cotton piece soaked in liquid paraffin (mineral oil) and rub the outer surface of green vegetable. If the cotton turns green, we can say that vegetable is adulterated with malachite green.
IODIZED SALT COMMON SALT Cut a piece of potato, add salt sample, wait for a minute and add two drops of lemon juice . Salt sample will turn blue. In case of common salt there will be no blue colour.

Adulteration of food not only cheats the consumer, but also poses a serious risk to health. Many people have not sufficient knowledge about purity and quality of food articles that they consume. Because mere visual inspection does not serve the purpose especially when adulteration is done with high degree of sophistication. Due to huge demand of a variety of food and lack of general awareness, a lion’s share of food items is adulterated regularly by merchants and traders who are unscrupulous and want to make a quick profit.


Hardware Implementation Image Processing Algorithms on FPGA

Importance of Image and its analysis:

Today Digital Image Processing has a variety of applications such as remote sensing, automated industrial inspection, medical technology for X-Ray enhancement, surveillance and many more. As the image sizes become larger, software tools have become inefficient to analyze large amount of data. As we look for solutions, Image processing comes up as a fitting reply.

Image processing: Definition:

Image processing is used to modify pictures for improvisation purposes, such as image enhancement, contrast, brightness as well as to extract information. Besides, analysis, detection and changing the original structure like composition, image editing are also possible using as image enhancement.

Advantage of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA):

There are two types of technologies available for hardware design-

  1. Full custom hardware design– It is also known as Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and semi custom hardware device, which comprises programmable devices like Digital signal processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA’s). Full custom ASIC design offers high speed and lower power dissipation, but the complexity and the cost associated with the design are very high. The ASIC design is not reprogrammable and is time consuming. ASIC designs are used in high volume commercial applications.


  1. 2.     Digital signal processor-  DSPs are a class of hardware devices that fall somewhere between an ASIC and a PC in terms of the performance and design complexity. DSPs are specialized for microprocessors, typically programmed in C, or with assembly code for improved performance. It is well suited to extremely complex math intensive tasks such as image processing. Knowledge of hardware design is still required, but the learning curve is much lower than the other design choices. Field Programmable Gate Arrays are reconfigurable devices.


Hardware Implementation Image Processing Algorithms on FPGA


Hardware implementation of Image processing algorithms:

Images can be processed by optical, photographic, and electronic means, but image processing using digital computers is the most common method. It is mainly because digital methods are fast, flexible, and accurate. Software based image processing algorithms have many limitations and are hence unable to offer desired results. This is a lacuna that Hardware based image processing can rectify.

Hardware implementation is one of the most important tools for real time image processing application. Hardware based image processing is very fast and provides accurate analysis compared to software implementation. Moreover, Hardware design techniques such as parallelism and pipelining techniques can be developed on FPGA, which is not possible in dedicated DSP designs.

Earthquake Effect on Masonry Structures and Its Remedy

Earthquake is a natural phenomenon whose intensity, magnitude and chance of occurrence are highly unpredictable, even with the help of latest developments. The only way to counter earthquake is to provide enough safety measures in the structural system. While we can adequately design RC structures, masonry structures are the most vulnerable under the effect of earthquake. Unreinforced brick/ stone masonry are still prevalent in rural India. The masonry structure does not have enough capacity to withstand lateral forces of earthquake. It is likely to crush under compressive forces and develops cracks under tensile and shear forces caused by seismic shaking. The main attention point of earthquake-resistant masonry building construction is to ensure that these effects are sustained without major damage or collapse.

The masonry wall, under strong shaking due to earthquake, divides the structure into three subunits:

  1. The masonry between the roof and the lintel behaves as a deep beam spanning between roof slab and lintel band when subjected to lateral forces. This part of the masonry has good resistance against lateral forces.
  2. The masonry between the lintel and up to the sill of the opening behaves as a short column and initiates the failure of the masonry wall attracting large lateral forces. When subjected to strong shaking, this gets disconnected from the masonry above and below and topples or develops diagonal cracking.
  3. The portion of the masonry between the sill of the opening and the plinth offers good resistance to lateral forces.

Earthquake Effect on Masonry Structures and Its Remedy

Extensive damage in the masonry structures during the earthquake is mainly due to the following weaknesses in the materials and construction of the masonry.

  1. Heavy weight of masonry, especially stone masonry leading to generation of large inertial forces.
  2. Low tensile and shear strength of poor mortar.
  3. Brittle behavior of masonry units in compression as well as in tension.
  4. Improper masonry bonds.
  5. Stress concentration around large openings in the wall.
  6. Lack of interlocking between adjacent walls.
  7. Large slenderness of the masonry wall leading to reduced strength and stability.
  8. Asymmetry in the building due to unsymmetrical placing of openings, plan and elevation leading to torsion failure.

Following measures are recommended to ensure better seismic resistance:

  1. Masonry courses from walls meeting at the corners must have good interlocking. Proper masonry bonds should be used. Vertical joints should be broken from course to course of the masonry wall.
  2. Horizontal RC bands of depth not less than 75 mm and appropriately reinforced should be provided in the masonry walls at various levels such as plinth, sill, lintel and roof level.
  3. The provision of openings too close to the corners of the walls should be avoided.
  4. It is better to keep openings as small as possible and away from corners.
  5. An integrally connected staircase acts like a cross brace between floors and transfers large horizontal forces to various levels. These are the areas of potential damage in masonry buildings. It is better to completely separate the staircase from the main building. Adequate gap should be provided between staircase tower and masonry building to ensure that they do not touch each other during earthquake.
  6. A provision of vertical reinforcement in masonry should be introduced by embedding reinforcing rods in edges of walls and anchoring in foundation and roof band.


Multimedia and its uses

The word ‘multimedia’ is of Latin origin. One way of defining multimedia can be found in the meaning of the composed word-

Multi- [lat.: much] many; much; multiple.

  • Medium- [lat.: middle] An intervening substance through which something is transmitted or carried on, a means of mass communication such as newspaper, magazine, or television (from American Heritage Electronic Dictionary, 1991).

As per Fred T. Hofstetter “Multimedia is the use of a computer to present and combine text, graphics, audio and video with links and tools that let the user navigate, interact, create and communicate”.

In the field of Information and Communication Technology, multimedia means more than the use of the various media. A computer user interacts with the computer to perform tasks such as finding information or play games to develop a skill. There are five main elements in a complete multimedia system: Text, Graphic, Audio, Video, and Animation. Multimedia is a tele-service concept that provides integrated and simultaneous services of more than one telecommunication services, namely, voice-world, video-world and data-world.

Typical examples of multimedia applications are:

  • Residential Services: WWW, Video-on-Demand, Home Shopping, Interactive TV, Interactive movies
  • Business Service: WWW, e-Business, Corporate Education
  • Education: Digital Libraries, Distance Education, electronic Journals, E-Magazine
  • Entertainment: Games, Interactive TV, Post Production of Movie and Music, Digital Video Editing, Animated movie, Morphing
  • Medicine and Health care: High quality magnetic resonance, 3D images of human bodies are captured through X-ray, CT Scan, Ultra-sonography images
  • Industry: Computer Based Training (CBT) for staff training and development
  • Information Kiosk
  • Travel and Tourism: Travel companies can market packaged tour by showing prospective customers glimpses of the places they would like to visit, with other attractions.
  • Content Based Storage and Retrieval(CBSR) Systems: Matching fingerprint from police records to identify a criminal using finger-print recognition system


Multimedia proposes to simulate human-like communication and services amidst a conducive environment of “You see as I see” and “You feel as I feel”. Virtual reality is inseparable from multimedia services. Multimedia is telling stories, transmitting modes of entertainment, or imparting education using sound, video and picture. Multimedia is indispensable in today’s world.

Computer Technology Research of 1993 brought out a remarkable statement- “People retain only 20% of what they see and 30% of what they hear. But they remember 50% of what they see and hear, and 80% of what they see, hear and do simultaneously.”

Employing multiple media for communicating messages and content increases the delivery efficiency, the message impact and the multisensory experience. Multimedia increases receiver’s knowledge and understanding of the received messages.

The power of multimedia and the Internet lies in the way in which information is linked. Multimedia and the Internet require a completely new approach to writing as well. The style of writing that is appropriate for the ‘on-line world’ is highly optimized and designed to engage the readers in the best possible way. One thing should be kept in mind that multimedia technology demands constant updates and expert maintenance to function efficiently. Because equipment failure prevents multimedia from fulfilling its purpose.

Multimedia allows the convergence of texts, pictures, videos, graphics, animation and sound into a single form.  It captures one’s attention and reaches the target audience at the greatest speed yielding the best possible outcome. This brings to mind a Chinese proverb-“Tell me and I shall forget; show me and I shall remember; involve me and I shall understand.” And this exactly defines the spirit behind multimedia.

  • Ranjan Parekh,’Principles of MULTIMEDIA’ 2e,Tata McGraw-Hill Education
  • Ralf Steinmetz, Klara Nahrstedt, ‘Multimedia:Computing,Communication & Applications’, PEARSON Education.


Importance of Environmental Engineering as an Integral Part of Civil Engineering

It is a frequently asked question why Environmental Engineering should be considered as an integral part of Civil Engineering. Many argue that as Environmental Engineering is a multi-disciplinary subject and comprises many facets of the environment, it should be separated from Civil Engineering and a new department should be formed. Students who will pursue the course in this department will get a degree in Environmental Engineering. Accordingly, some of the institutes in a few states have started to confer degrees on Environmental Engineering to students who qualify.

Premier institutes like IITs, NITs, IIEST, JU have not accepted the above proposition. In these institutes, Environmental Engineering is still under the domain of Civil Engineering. In the master degree level there is specialization in this discipline only.

The main argument raised by these institutes is that Environmental Engineering covers a wide area of civil construction part, which may be possible to impart to students only if it remains, tied up with Civil Engineering.

The name Environmental Engineering is a new coinage.  Originally the name of the subject was Public Health Engineering. The coverage of the subject was Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering. Water Supply Engineering includes source of water, water quality, water requirement, water treatment, water storage (both impounded and overhead reservoir), water distribution and so on.  Sanitary Engineering, which was later renamed as Wastewater Engineering, includes wastewater collection system, wastewater characterization, wastewater treatment and disposal.

sewage treatment station

Sewage treatment station

Gradually this subject engulfed many aspects of environment, viz. air, water and land. It includes- Air pollution and control, noise pollution and control, water pollution and control, land pollution and control and industrial pollution and its abatement. All the branches of science starting from physics, chemistry, mathematics, biochemistry, microbiology are very much integrated with Environmental Engineering.

‘Environment’ has become a very popular word of the day. Scientists from different fields are conducting research on many important aspects related to environment. Right thinking of people all over the world recognizes that the very sustainability of civilization and mankind depends entirely on proper maintenance of ecological balance. Over extraction and uncontrolled use of natural resources without due cognizance of its renewal will only lead to destruction. As a result, the importance of the subject ‘Environmental Engineering’ has been recognized and the subject has established a strong foothold in higher education all over the world.

In many universities abroad there is a Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering highlighting equal importance to environment and other disciplines of Civil Engineering. In our country, environmental pollution has become an issue of concern for the Governments (both Central and State). Environmental Laws and Regulations are enacted in the Parliament and regulatory authorities are established to control environmental degradation as a whole.

Unfortunately, in spite of above efforts and initiatives, environmental pollution has still remained as a menace in our country. People at large are getting affected by the adverse effects of the degraded environment. Lack of awareness can be attributed behind this untoward consequence.

In order to apprise people, due emphasis should be given to knowledge imparting on the environment. Alongside, subjects like Environmental Science and Engineering have to gain their due impetus. Importance of ‘Environmental Engineering’ as an integral part of Civil Engineering should get its rightful place among all the branches of engineering at the earliest.



Events @ Brainware’s Electrical Engineering Department

Here at Brainware, we are always trying to impart quality education. And its not just about knowledge sharing and learning. Through workshops, seminars, and industry-interactions, we provide exposure  so that our students can meet the industry-leaders, ask questions, to better prepare for the future.

Here are a few events our Electrical Engineering department has organized in recent times.

1. A seminar on “Advanced Embedded System” was organized by the department of Electrical Engineering of Brainware. Mr. Krishnendu Dutta, of Data Control System Embedded System & Robotics was the leading speaker. He elaborated on the basics of advanced embedded systems. The students were also made familiar with the software and hardware applications of the system. Besides, the students were able to rekindle their interest in the area and get the latest information, which will help them succeed in the future.

2. A seminar on “Academic Industry Interface” by The Phoenix-A Finishing School (A Division of Media InfoTech) took place on April 9th, 2016 on the campus.  Mr. Saubhik Bhattacahryya of Phoenix was the guest speaker. He spoke extensively on the current scenario and practical facets of the industry.

electrical engineering

3. On popular demand, a workshop on P.L.C was once more organized by the department of Electrical Engineering on April 22nd and 23rd, 2016. The workshop was conducted by ARDENT COMPUTER PVT.LTD (ISO 9001:2008). Our students understood the basics of PLC. They also designed hands-on, basic logic ladder diagrams using simulation and implemented them in Hardware PLC Logic.

The event was a roaring success. Students of the department across all 4 years participated. Feedback from students was also very positive. At the end, certificates of participation were given away to the students who attended the workshop. We are glad to have helped our students.

Two-Day Workshop on Embedded System and Robotics

Brainware Group of Institutions, in association with I-MEDITA organised a workshop on ‘EMBEDDED SYSTEM AND ROBOTICS’ from 7th through 8th September, 2016 on its college campus at Barasat. Existing students from the Electrical and Electronics Engineering departments, across all 4 years, participated in the event.


The students were enlightened as the guest speakers shared their knowledge and experience. They got to use advanced tools such as Arduino Atmega 8 USB powered board, LCD, Receiver and transmitter circuit, Motors, Robot Chasis, Joystick, Motor Driver Circuit, and also learned about their practical utility.

The students learned the applications of Arduino boards, Joy sticks, and embedded systems and robotics. Additionally, they were introduced to the LCD interfaced Robot, PC controlled Robot, H-Bridge concept, Wireless Communication technology, receiving and transmitting signals.

There was a competition on the 8th  where the students were divided into separate groups. Participants of the best 3 groups were felicitated. Certificates of participation were also awarded to all students and staff co-ordinators.

Racing Cars By Nitesh Kumar

One of the most exciting and breathtaking events in the modern world is Auto Racing. In addition to being a high end entertainer, Racing also has contributed to the field of research and engineering. Since the first contest in 1887, the race car has seen extensive design improvements which were motivated by both performance and regulations in the racing industry. Along with this, a lot of experimentation and innovation is adopted by the designers according to the requirements of their clients in terms of style which resulted in various families of race cars.


The first step into understanding and enjoying the racing is to form an overview of the
types of race cars.
The first type is called Sports prototype used in sports car racing and is effectively the next automotive design and technological step up from road-going sports cars and are, along with open-wheel cars, the pinnacle of racing-car design. These cars are purpose-built racing cars with enclosed wheels, and either open or closed cockpits. Since the World Sportscar Championship was conceived there have been various regulations regarding bodywork, engine style and size, tires and aerodynamics to which these cars must be built. Sports-prototypes may be (and often are) one-of-a-kind machines, and need bear no relation to any road-going vehicle. In the ACO regulations, two categories of sports-prototypes are now recognized: P1 and P2. Cars competing in the P1 category must weigh no less than 900 kg and are limited to 6000 cc naturally aspirated and 4000 cc turbocharged engines. 5500 cc turbo-Diesel engines are also permitted in P1 – Audi scored Le Mans victories with such a car in 2006, 2007 and 2008 and Peugeot returned to racing in 2007 with a car with a similar powerplant (Peugeot 908). P2 cars can weigh much less -first 675 kg, then 750 kg and now 825 kg – but are restricted to 3400cc V6 or V8 normally aspirated or 2000 cc turbocharged powerplants.

Another popular type of race car is a Grand Touring ( GT). Among these, No. 35 Maserati MC12 GT1 car running at the 2005 Grand Prix of AtlantaGrand Touring (from the Italian Gran Turismo) racing is the most common form of sports car racing, and is found all over the
world, in both international and national series. When GT racing revived after the collapse of the World Sports Car Championship at the end of 1992, the lead in defining rules was taken by the ACO. Under the ACO rules, Grand Touring cars are divided into two categories, Grand Touring 1 (GT1, formerly GTS) and Grand Touring 2 (GT2, formerly GT). As the name of the class implies, the exterior of the car closely resembles that of the production version, while the internal fittings may differ greatly. GT2 cars are very similar to the FIA GT2 classification, and are ‘pure’ GT cars; that is production exotic cars with relatively few internal modifications for racing. The Porsche 911is currently the most popular car in the GT2 class.


The admiration towards a Race car, alike the creative design changes will keep on growing and keep on contributing to the field of sports, entertainment and advanced technological studies as well.