Implementation of Nanoparticle in Cancer Treatment by Dr. Rina Dutta, Assistant Professor, Physics Department

Introduction

Nanoscience refers to one of the scientific and technological areas of 21st century research because of its importance to various domains of human need e.g. computers, biology, electronics, and material design. The use of nanoparticles in medicine is an advance topic of current research and has advantages over cancer therapies. Nanoparticles have certain properties e.g. size, shape, and biocompatibility which allow them to affect the human body differently than traditional therapies. Nanotechnologies have a great effectiveness of treating cancer. Magnetic field hyperthermia is made

more effective by the use of biocompatible super paramagnetic nanoparticles. Cancer is also being treated with gold nanoparticles which are able to select cancerous tissue and damage it by laser induced explosion.

 

Implementation

(i)Magnetic Field Hyperthermia: Cancer Treatment with AC Magnetic Field

 

There are many different treatments for cancer. Hyperthermia is a possible treatment among the many others that is being studied. Hyperthermia is the heating of certain organs or tissues at temperature between 41°C and 46°C.

By heating tissue within that range it causes damage to the cells. Unfortunately, with hyperthermia, it is difficult to target specific cells, for example cancer cells, without using a targeting agent. To obtain a

more concentrated dose of hyperthermia, magnetic particles are used with magnetic fields at specific sites. In this technique nanoparticles absorb much more power from AC magnetic field and create a magnetic core that develops a magnetic moment. Once a magnetic field is applied the particle lines up along the field direction. With the change of the magnetic field, the particle will rotate to realign with the new field lines. Fields constantly change as they are within AC magnetic field and particles will constantly be rotating from one orientation to the other. This oscillation creates an energy transfer that causes friction and produce heat. This heat can build up hyperthermia in the tissue where the magnetic nanoparticles are present.

(ii)Laser-Induced Explosion of Gold Nanoparticles for Treatment of Cancer

Cancer is a deadly disease, and researchers are constantly looking for its treatment. Cancer cells along with viruses, bacteria and DNA can be damaged by nanophoto-thermolysis process with lasers and

gold nanoparticles. This is a favourable technique because if one damage cell is left, it can cause the cancer to regrow. When nanoparticles are irradiated by short laser pulses, the temperature rises very quickly and reach thresholds limit. As a result micro bubble formation, acoustic and shock waves are generated. These bubbles can then burst, sending out shockwaves through the abnormal cell. The force from the shock wave can disrupt the cell membrane and damaging them. This technique also allows healthy tissue to be spared. Healthy tissue will at times grow and replace the tissue damaged by cancer. This technique depends on laser wavelength, pulse duration, particle size and particle shape. All of these factors are vital in creating localized damage of the cancer cells and sparing healthy tissue.

Conclusion

The field of nanomedicine is new and growing rapidly. Nanoparticles are being used to increase image contrast of ultrasound, MRI technology, orthopedic implants etc. Overall, nanoparticles can be

used to create medical advances because of their unique qualities and applications.

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