## Quantum Computer – Generation Z is waiting, by Jayanta Aich, Dept of CSE/IT/MCA

We are living in the world of problems. Some of them can be solved and the others are left unsolved. The problems that can be solved by us, take different efforts. Many of them can be solved within a fraction of a second. Some others are solved within an hour, in a day or over a month. And the rest take time beyond our imagination. Even our “now-a-days computer” cannot solve them in their lifetime. A quantum computer is the first stepping stone to solve these nearly unsolvable problems. The concept is based on a physical feature of matter, called quanta. Nature of quanta is non-deterministic. This non-determinism introduces probabilistic nature to quantum computer. In this computation, uncertainty and probability replace the deterministic approach of our classical computer. Quanta are basic feature of any earthly material. We can consider quanta as a packet of energy or a cloud of energy, which can have mass and hence existence. So someone can consider quanta as energy or mass. But we don’t know when quanta acts like energy or when it behaves like mass. Thus it shows its uncertain nature and leads a problem to its solution with the probabilistic approach. In this new computing paradigm quanta are used as the processing unit to process data as well as the memory unit to store them.

Each and every unit based on each and every quanta called qubit. A qubit can store information 0 or 1 within it like a bit in our conventional computer system. If a qubit has 0 within it, it is denoted by |0> and spelled as ket-zero. Similarly 1 within a qubit is ket-one (|1>). Beside this, due to its probabilistic nature, a qubit can store information which contains some amount of zero and rest amount of one together as well. Therefore a qubit can be treated as |0> and |1> both at the same time. This situation is called superposition. But a superposed qubit cannot shows the nature of |0> or |1> in full. Rather it shows the nature of |0> with some probability and the nature of |1> with the rest. Let us consider a qubit X is showing the nature of |0> with probability ‘a’ and the nature of |1> with probability ‘b’, then we can express X as |X> = a.|0> + b.|1>, where a2+b2=1, since we know the summation of probability should be always 1. So a qubit can solve a simple uncertain problem with probabilistic approach. Hence, a millions of qubits can act together to solve a nearly unsolvable problem. In recent years, researchers and scientists of different countries have developed some basic quantum gates to perform quantum operations. Different quantum algorithms are already invented to solve various problems. Indian scientist, L. K. Grover proposed a quantum database search algorithm, which can find the required information from a large chunk of unordered data in very less time. Although we are not able to implement these algorithms on a physical quantum machine till date, but the days are not so far when we can solve some of those nearly unsolvable problems with quantum computers in no time.

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